bound states
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2022 ◽  
Vol 149 ◽  
pp. 107859
Zhenghu Chang ◽  
Lingdi Kong ◽  
Yulong Cao ◽  
Ai Liu ◽  
Ziwei Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 2102386
Nguyen Ha My Dang ◽  
Simone Zanotti ◽  
Emmanuel Drouard ◽  
Céline Chevalier ◽  
Gaëlle Trippé‐Allard ◽  

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Jianan Sun ◽  
Mark Anthony V. Raymundo ◽  
Chia-En A. Chang

Understanding non-covalent biomolecular recognition, which includes drug–protein bound states and their binding/unbinding processes, is of fundamental importance in chemistry, biology, and medicine. Fully revealing the factors that govern the binding/unbinding processes can further assist in designing drugs with desired binding kinetics. HIV protease (HIVp) plays an integral role in the HIV life cycle, so it is a prime target for drug therapy. HIVp has flexible flaps, and the binding pocket can be accessible by a ligand via various pathways. Comparing ligand association and dissociation pathways can help elucidate the ligand–protein interactions such as key residues directly involved in the interaction or specific protein conformations that determine the binding of a ligand under certain pathway(s). Here, we investigated the ligand unbinding process for a slow binder, ritonavir, and a fast binder, xk263, by using unbiased all-atom accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulation with a re-seeding approach and an explicit solvent model. Using ritonavir-HIVp and xk263-HIVp ligand–protein systems as cases, we sampled multiple unbinding pathways for each ligand and observed that the two ligands preferred the same unbinding route. However, ritonavir required a greater HIVp motion to dissociate as compared with xk263, which can leave the binding pocket with little conformational change of HIVp. We also observed that ritonavir unbinding pathways involved residues which are associated with drug resistance and are distal from catalytic site. Analyzing HIVp conformations sampled during both ligand–protein binding and unbinding processes revealed significantly more overlapping HIVp conformations for ritonavir-HIVp rather than xk263-HIVp. However, many HIVp conformations are unique in xk263-HIVp unbinding processes. The findings are consistent with previous findings that xk263 prefers an induced-fit model for binding and unbinding, whereas ritonavir favors a conformation selection model. This study deepens our understanding of the dynamic process of ligand unbinding and provides insights into ligand–protein recognition mechanisms and drug discovery.

2022 ◽  
Igor Aronson ◽  
Jiyuan Wang ◽  
Mu-Jie Huang ◽  
Remmi Baker-Sediako ◽  
Raymond Kapral

Abstract Control of the individual and collective behavior of self-propelled synthetic micro-objects has immediate application for nanotechnology, robotics, and precision medicine. Despite significant progress in the synthesis and characterization of self-propelled Janus (two-faced) particles, predictive understanding of their behavior remains challenging, especially if the particles have anisotropic forms. Here, by using molecular simulation, we describe the interactions of chemically-propelled microtori near a wall. The results show that a torus hovers at a certain distance from the wall due to a combination of gravity and hydrodynamic flows generated by the chemical activity. Moreover, electrostatic dipolar interactions between the torus and the wall result in a spontaneous tilt and horizontal translation, in a qualitative agreement with the experiment. Simulations of the dynamics of two tori near a wall provide evidence for the formation of stable self-propelled bound states. Our results illustrate that self-organization at the microscale occurs due to a combination of multiple factors, including hydrodynamic, chemical, and electrostatic interactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Emre Ergeçen ◽  
Batyr Ilyas ◽  
Dan Mao ◽  
Hoi Chun Po ◽  
Mehmet Burak Yilmaz ◽  

AbstractIn van der Waals (vdW) materials, strong coupling between different degrees of freedom can hybridize elementary excitations into bound states with mixed character1–3. Correctly identifying the nature and composition of these bound states is key to understanding their ground state properties and excitation spectra4,5. Here, we use ultrafast spectroscopy to reveal bound states of d-orbitals and phonons in 2D vdW antiferromagnet NiPS3. These bound states manifest themselves through equally spaced phonon replicas in frequency domain. These states are optically dark above the Néel temperature and become accessible with magnetic order. By launching this phonon and spectrally tracking its amplitude, we establish the electronic origin of bound states as localized d–d excitations. Our data directly yield electron-phonon coupling strength which exceeds the highest known value in 2D systems6. These results demonstrate NiPS3 as a platform to study strong interactions between spins, orbitals and lattice, and open pathways to coherent control of 2D magnets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shane P. Comer

Platelet cytoskeletal reorganisation is a critical component of platelet activation and thrombus formation in haemostasis. The Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 are the primary drivers in the dynamic reorganisation process, leading to the development of filopodia and lamellipodia which dramatically increase platelet surface area upon activation. Rho GTPases cycle between their active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) states through tightly regulated processes, central to which are the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). GEFs catalyse the dissociation of GDP by inducing changes in the nucleotide binding site, facilitating GTP binding and activating Rho GTPases. By contrast, while all GTPases possess intrinsic hydrolysing activity, this reaction is extremely slow. Therefore, GAPs catalyse the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, reverting Rho GTPases to their inactive state. Our current knowledge of these proteins is constantly being updated but there is considerably less known about the functionality of Rho GTPase specific GAPs and GEFs in platelets. In the present review, we discuss GAP and GEF proteins for Rho GTPases identified in platelets, their regulation, biological function and present a case for their further study in platelets.

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