humic acids
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2022 ◽  
Vol 148 (2) ◽  
Shunyao Li ◽  
Rui Zhu ◽  
Huijie Wei ◽  
Michael Gatheru Waigi ◽  
Kai Sun ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 612
Aneta Lisowska ◽  
Barbara Filipek-Mazur ◽  
Józef Sołtys ◽  
Marcin Niemiec ◽  
Olga Gorczyca ◽  

There is a potential for using sulfur waste in agriculture. The main objective of this study was to design a granular fertilizer based on waste elemental sulfur. Humic acids and halloysite were used to improve the properties and their influence on soil properties. This is the first report on the use of proposed materials for fertilizer production. The following granular fertilizers were prepared (the percentage share of component weight is given in brackets): fertilizer A (waste sulfur (95%) + halloysite (5%)), fertilizer B (waste sulfur (81%) + halloysite (5%) + humic acids (14%)), fertilizer C (waste sulfur (50%) + halloysite (50%)) and fertilizer D (waste sulfur (46%) + halloysite (46%) + humic acids (8%)). Basic properties of the obtained granulates were determined. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of the prepared fertilizers on soil pH, electrolytic conductivity, and sulfate content was examined in a 90-day incubation experiment. Enrichment with humic acids and the higher amount of halloysite increased the fertilizer properties (especially the share of larger granules and bulk density). In addition, it stabilized soil pH and increased the sulfur content (extracted with 0.01 mol·L−1 CaCl2 and Mehlich 3) in the soil.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 218
Tiow Ping Wong ◽  
Roger W. Babcock ◽  
Theodore Uekawa ◽  
Joachim Schneider ◽  
Bing Hu

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reportedly make up approximately half of the organic matter in activated sludge (AS), and therefore strongly influence AS properties. This study evaluated the component fractions of EPS normalized to volatile suspended solids (VSS) in waste activated sludge (WAS) from a trickling-filter-solids contact process (TF/SC) and its ability to biosorb organic matter from raw wastewater with 30 min of contact time. Biosorption is the process in which organic matter (carbohydrates, proteins, humic acids, DNA, uronic acids, and lipids) in a sorbate, such as raw wastewater, sorbs onto a sorbent such as WAS. A statistically significant correlation was found between both the total concentration of EPS and the proteins component of the EPS and the biosorption removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and truly soluble COD (ffCOD). Thus, the biosorption of soluble forms of COD can accurately be predicted by quantifying just the amount of proteins in WAS-associated EPS. No significant correlations were found for the biosorption of colloidal COD (cCOD). WAS biosorbed 45–75 mg L−1 of COD in 30 min. WAS absorbed or stored the proteins fraction of the soluble microbial products (SMP) during the biosorption process. Higher concentrations of humic acids were found in the biosorption process effluent than in the untreated wastewater, which warrants further study. Longer cation exchange resin (CER) extraction times yielded more total EPS from the sludge: 90 ± 9, 158 ± 3, and 316 ± 44 mg g−1 VSS, for 45-min, 4-h, and 24-h extraction times, respectively. Thus, EPS extracted represented only 9%, 15.8%, and 31.6% of the VSS, respectively, raising questions about whether the accurate characterization of EPS can be performed using the typical extraction time of 45 min due to different extraction rates for different components. It was found that the humic acids fraction was extracted much more slowly than the other fractions.

E. S. Trofimova ◽  
M. V. Zykova ◽  
A. A. Ligacheva ◽  
M. G. Danilets ◽  
E. Yu. Sherstoboev ◽  

RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 528-539
Shiying Li ◽  
Jinfang Tan ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Peipei Li ◽  
Desheng Hu ◽  

Bio-solubilization of lignite is a promising technology to transform coal into humic acids (HAs) which are broadly used in agriculture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
T. T. Efremova ◽  
S. P. Efremov

Eutrophic peatlands with a predominantly humate type of humus is dominated according to content of hydrophobic humus substances accumulated in the solid phase of peat. Oligotrophic peatlands with fulvate type of humus are characterized by minimal storages. Mesotrophic peatlands occupy a transitional position, both in terms of storage and in terms of the humus type – humate-fulvate. Hydrophilic components of the water phase are characterized by fulvate humus, regardless of the type of peatland, but differ in the proportion of the contribution of humus substances in the amphiphilic system of swamp ecosystems. It is the highest in the thickness of the oligotrophic peatland almost 31%, slightly lower in the mesotrophic – 25% and much less in the eutrophic – 6%. Structural features of macromolecules of humic acids of swamp waters of various genesis are determined. The humic acids of mesotrophic waters are adjacent to the group of reduced compounds, they are more enriched with aromatic structures and carboxyl groups in relation to oligotrophic waters. The humic acids of oligotrophic waters belong to a group of oxygenated compounds, have low enrichment of nitrogen, contain more methoxyl carbon and carbohydrates (polysaccharides). These structural features are caused by geochemistry of waters feeding the peatlands and specific mechanisms of humic acids synthesis on the swamps of different genesis. The volume of dissolved organic carbon stock from wetland ecosystems through system of taiga rivers of left bank of Middle Ob is 805 kt per year.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
V. I. Polyakov ◽  
E. V. Abakumov

The aim of the study. Nowadays close attention is paid to polar soils due to the expected landscape transformation rate under the predicted climate crisis. Intensive degradation of permafrost and the release of nutrients from their frozen state can lead to an increase in the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, as well as the loss of landscapes. The aim of the study was to investigate the peculiarities of organic residues formation and humification degree as well as humus structure and functioning in soil the Lena River Delta. Location and time of the study. The study was conducted on the Samoylov and Sardach Islands in the Lena River Delta (Yakutia, Russia). Field studies were performed during the summer of 2019. Objects and methodology. Soils of the Lena River Delta from the Samoylov Island (flooded area) and Sardakh (non-flooded zone), i.e. Subaquatic Fluvisol (Arenic) and Histic Cryosol (Siltic) were the objects of the study, respectively. To examine the features of humification chemical-analytical, sedimentation, micromorphological methods were used, as well as CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Main results. The data obtained indicate a high diversity of soils and soil formation conditions in the Lena River Delta. Under non-flooded conditions Histic Cryosol (Siltic) were formed in the flooded parts of the Samoylov Island, Subaquatic Fluvisol (Arenic) were formed. These soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle, accumulation, transformation and deposition of condensed high- and low molecular mass organic compounds in the composition of soils and permafrost. The main soil micromorphology features were identified. In the young landscapes the soil microstructure was represented by poorly sorted sand with a circular type of optical orientation of the soil plasma (which indicated the influence of the river), as well as vertically oriented micas (muscovite/biotite). Soils influenced by the floodplain process were characterized by the presence of coarse amorphous humus. Due to the long-term effect of the freezing/thawing processes on the permafrost-affected soils the biogenic aggregates were formed. In such organo-mineral microaggregates humus is fixed in the composition of mineral components consisting of particles of quartz, micas and Mn-Fe nodules and is in a stable state (physical stabilization of humus). To analyze the molecular composition the 13C NMR spectroscopy method was used. According to 13C NMR spectroscopy data, up to 37% of aromatic structural fragments accumulated in soils, which indicates the process of condensation of molecules in humic acids, thus showing a relatively high level of humus stabilization in the soils of the Lena River delta. From the data obtained, three main groups of chemical structural fragments that accumulate in the delta soils can be distinguished, such as C,H - alkyls ((CH2)n/CH/C and CH3), aromatic compounds (C–C/C–H, C–O) and the OCH group (OCH/OCq). In the studied humic preparations aliphatic structural fragments of HAs (63–64%) predominated, which indicated a deficiency of lignin and lignin-like compounds in the composition of humification precursors. The predominance of aliphatic structures is typical of humic substances formed under reduction conditions, including the aqueous humic substances, as well as in soils, the precursors of humification of which are typical tundra vegetation (mosses and lichens) with a predominance of carbohydrates (up to 80%). A significant amount of aromatic fragments accumulated in the delta in the alluvial soils of the first terrace of the river (flooded zone). This is apparently due to the formation of vascular plants in the flooded areas of the Lena River Delta. The chemical composition of vascular plants includes components such as tannins, flavonoids and lignin (arenas). Thus in the samples formed under vascular plants with a lignin content of about 30%, an increase in signals in the range of 110-160 ppm were observed. Aromatic and carboxyl fragments in the structure of HA were formed during the transformation of lignin, which leads to the resistance of HAs to biodegradation. Conclusion. Under the floodplain condition humus is represented by coarse amorphous forms, whereas without the influence of flooding humus is fixed in mineral microaggregates. Specific humic acids composition in the studied regions is determined by bioclimatic conditions, cryogenic processes and the composition of humification precursors. High abundance of aromatic structures in humus substances suggests relatively stable humus status (most likely due to the putative condensation of humic acids) in the Lena River Delta during the study period.

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