biosorption process
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Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 218
Tiow Ping Wong ◽  
Roger W. Babcock ◽  
Theodore Uekawa ◽  
Joachim Schneider ◽  
Bing Hu

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reportedly make up approximately half of the organic matter in activated sludge (AS), and therefore strongly influence AS properties. This study evaluated the component fractions of EPS normalized to volatile suspended solids (VSS) in waste activated sludge (WAS) from a trickling-filter-solids contact process (TF/SC) and its ability to biosorb organic matter from raw wastewater with 30 min of contact time. Biosorption is the process in which organic matter (carbohydrates, proteins, humic acids, DNA, uronic acids, and lipids) in a sorbate, such as raw wastewater, sorbs onto a sorbent such as WAS. A statistically significant correlation was found between both the total concentration of EPS and the proteins component of the EPS and the biosorption removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and truly soluble COD (ffCOD). Thus, the biosorption of soluble forms of COD can accurately be predicted by quantifying just the amount of proteins in WAS-associated EPS. No significant correlations were found for the biosorption of colloidal COD (cCOD). WAS biosorbed 45–75 mg L−1 of COD in 30 min. WAS absorbed or stored the proteins fraction of the soluble microbial products (SMP) during the biosorption process. Higher concentrations of humic acids were found in the biosorption process effluent than in the untreated wastewater, which warrants further study. Longer cation exchange resin (CER) extraction times yielded more total EPS from the sludge: 90 ± 9, 158 ± 3, and 316 ± 44 mg g−1 VSS, for 45-min, 4-h, and 24-h extraction times, respectively. Thus, EPS extracted represented only 9%, 15.8%, and 31.6% of the VSS, respectively, raising questions about whether the accurate characterization of EPS can be performed using the typical extraction time of 45 min due to different extraction rates for different components. It was found that the humic acids fraction was extracted much more slowly than the other fractions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 19-27
Sumaiya Nusrat Chaitee ◽  
Rudra Protap Biswas ◽  
Md Imran Kabir

The organic content from urban wastewater is treated with various conventional processes efficiently. However, for biological treatment of secondary effluent containing excessive inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, microalgae can be used. In this study, algal strains have been collected from locally available natural blooms and cultured in a BG-11 medium. Spirulina sp., the blue-green algae, dominant over the other species within the natural bloom, is applied in ten different dosages (0.2-2.5 g/L) to the synthetic wastewater with a 3-day hydraulic retention time. The removal efficiency of nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate have been observed to be about 60%, 30%, and 54% respectively. The highest removal efficiency has been found at 2.5 g/L of microalgae dose. Linear forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms have been used for biosorption modeling, and both isotherms fit well with R2>60% and NRMSE<11% in all cases. Additionally, the separation factor and the adsorption intensity represent the favorability of the biosorption process. Journal of Engineering Science 12(3), 2021, 19-27

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 170
Lăcrămioara Rusu ◽  
Cristina-Gabriela Grigoraș ◽  
Andrei-Ionuț Simion ◽  
Elena-Mirela Suceveanu ◽  
Alexandra-Cristina Blaga ◽  

Pharmaceuticals are recognized as emerging water microcontaminants that have been reported in several aquatic environments worldwide; therefore, the elimination of these pollutants is a global challenge. This study aimed to develop a biosorbent based on Saccharomyces pastorianus residual biomass encapsulated in a calcium alginate matrix and to evaluate its biosorption performance to remove Ethacridine Lactate (EL) from aqueous solutions. Firstly, the synthesis and characterization of biosorbent has been carried out. Then, the impact of main parameters on biosorption process were investigated by batch experiments. Finally, the kinetics behavior and equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. The resulted beads have an irregular and elongated shape with about 1.89 mm ± 0.13 mm in size with a homogeneous structure. The best removal efficiency for EL of over 85% was obtained at acidic pH 2 and 25 °C for 50 mg/L initial concentration and 2 g/L biosorbent dose. The pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetics describe the biosorption process. The maximum calculated biosorption capacity was 21.39 mg/g similar to that recorded experimentally. The equilibrium biosorption data were a good fit for Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms. Our findings reveal that the low cost and eco-friendly obtained biosorbent can be easily synthesized and suitable to remove Ethacridine Lactate from water matrices.

Ülküye Dudu Gül ◽  
Zeynep Mine Şenol ◽  
Burcu Ertit Taştan

Abstract The biosorption properties of a newly isolated and identified cyanobacterium called Desertifilum tharense were investigated in the current study. Following morphological and molecular identification (16S rRNA sequencing analysis), the food colorant removal potential of this new isolate was determined. Moreover, the isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies were performed, and also the biosorbent characterization was studied after and before colorant biosorption with FTIR and SEM analysis. Additionally, the changes in chlorophyll content of the biosorbent were examined after and before colorant treatment. The newly isolated cyanobacterial biosorbent removed 97% of Allura red food colorant/dye at 1,500 mg L−1 initial dye concentration successfully at optimal conditions. Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were fitted with the biosorption of the dye. The D-R model showed that the biosorption process physically occurred. The chlorophyll-a content of the biosorbent was negatively affected by the biosorption. The newly isolated and identified cyanobacterium seems to be a successful candidate for the use to treat highly dye concentrated wastewaters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tadele Assefa Aragaw ◽  
Fekadu Mazengiaw Bogale

Dyes, especially azo dyes contained in wastewaters released from textile, pigment, and leather industries, are entering into natural waterbodies. This results in environmental deterioration and serious health damages (for example carcinogenicity and mutagenesis) through food chains. Physiochemical, membrane processes, electrochemical technology, advanced oxidation processes, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, electrolysis, and adsorption techniques are commonly used conventional treatment technologies. However, the limitations of most of these methods include the generation of toxic sludge, high operational and maintenance costs. Thus, technological advancements are in use to remediate dyes from effluents. Adsorption using the nonconventional biomass-based sorbents is the greatest attractive alternatives because of their low cost, sustainability, availability, and eco-friendly. We present and reviewed up-to-date publications on biomass-based sorbents used for dye removal. Conceptualization and synthesizing their state-of-the-art knowledge on their characteristics, experimental conditions used were also discussed. The merits and limitations of various biosorbents were also reflected. The maximum dye adsorption capacities of various biosorbents were reviewed and synthesized in the order of the biomass type (algae, agricultural, fungal, bacterial, activated carbon, yeast, and others). Surface chemistry, pH, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, and adsorbent dose as well as the ways of the preparations of materials affect the biosorption process. Based on the average dye adsorption capacity, those sorbents were arranged and prioritized. The best fit of the adsorption isotherms (for example Freundlich and Langmuir models) and basic operating parameters on the removal dyes were retrieved. Which biomass-based adsorbents have greater potential for dye removal based on their uptake nature, cost-effectiveness, bulk availability, and mono to multilayer adsorption behavior was discussed. The basic limitations including the desorption cycles of biomass-based adsorbent preparation and operation for the implementation of this technology were forwarded.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4314
Daniela Suteu ◽  
Alexandra Cristina Blaga ◽  
Ramona Cimpoesu ◽  
Adrian Cătălin Puiţel ◽  
Ramona-Elena Tataru-Farmus

Natural polymers have proven to be extremely interesting matrices for the immobilization of microbial biomasses, via various mechanisms, in order to bring them into a form easier to handle—the form of composites. This article aimed to study composites based on a residual microbial biomass immobilized in sodium alginate via an encapsulation technique as materials with adsorbent properties. Thus, this study focused on the residual biomass resulting from beer production (Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast, separated after the biosynthesis process by centrifugation and dried at 80 °C)—an important source of valuable compounds, used either as a raw material or for transformation into final products with added value. Thus, the biosorptive potential of this type of composite was tested—presenting in the form of spherical microcapsules 900 and 1500 μm in diameter—in a biosorption process applied to aqueous solutions containing the reactive dye Brilliant Red HE-3B (16.88–174.08 mg/L), studied in a batch system. The preparation and characterization of the obtained polymeric composites (pHPZC, SEM, EDS and FTIR spectra) and an analysis of different equilibrium isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich—D–R) were investigated in order to estimate the quantitative characteristic parameters of the biosorption process, its thermal effects, and its possible mechanisms of action. The modelling of the experimental data led to the conclusion that the studied biosorption process took place after reaching the Langmuir isotherm (LI), and that the main mechanism was possibly physical, being spontaneous and probably exothermic according to the values obtained for the free energy of biosorption (E = 8.45–13.608 kJ/mol, from the DR equation), as well as the negative values for the Gibbs free energy and the enthalpy of biosorption (ΔH0 = −87.795 kJ/mol). The results obtained lead to the conclusion that encapsulation of this residual microbial biomass in sodium alginate leads to an easier-to-handle form of biomass, thus being an efficient biosorbent for static or dynamic operating systems for effluents containing moderate concentrations of reactive organic dyes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 7775-7786

The application of the biosorption process and agricultural waste to treat heavy metals has drawn much attention. This method seems to be a more economical, environmentally friendly, and simple way for removing heavy metals from effluents. The study was conducted to explore the efficiency of the biosorption process utilizing spent mushroom compost to remove copper (II) and iron (II) from synthetic wastewater. Biosorption studies at different operating parameters, such as biosorbent dosage (1.0 – 5.0 g), pH (pH 4 – 8), contact time (1 - 30 minutes), and initial heavy metal concentration (10 - 100 mg/L), were conducted in batch experiments. The highest performance for copper (II) and iron (II) biosorption was found at 5.0 g biosorbent dosage of spent mushroom compost, unadjusted pH 6, 10 minutes of contact time, and 10 mg/L of initial concentration. The study was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 > 0.95) for copper (II) and iron (II) biosorption, which are much greater compared to the Freundlich model. The study is also very well suited to the pseudo-second-order (R2 > 0.999) than the pseudo-first-order kinetic models. In conclusion, the spent mushroom compost has the potential to be an effective biosorbent for removing copper (II) and iron (II) from synthetic wastewater.

2021 ◽  
Isabela Maria Simion ◽  
Raluca Maria Hlihor ◽  
Mihaela Rosca ◽  
Catalina Filote ◽  
Petronela Cozma

Melanie G. Binauhan ◽  
Adonis P. Adornado ◽  
Lemmuel L. Tayo ◽  
Allan N. Soriano ◽  
Rugi Vicente C. Rubi

The introduction of heavy metal wastes in the environment has posed health risks to both human and animals due to their toxicity. Since then, different studies have been explored for the possibility of utilizing new, low–cost, and sustainable adsorbent materials to get rid of heavy metals in the wastewater streams and aqueous solutions. This present study aimed to investigate and compare the adsorption ability of powdered calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) fruit peels (PCFP) for the elimination of both Al(III) and Cu(II) ions in single (non–competitive) and binary (competitive) aqueous systems by batch adsorption techniques. Scanning electron microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the surface morphologies for the biosorbent and quantify the removal rates of heavy metal, respectively. Models were then used to describe in detail about the adsorption kinetics and isotherms for both single and binary metal systems. The influence and dependency of different experimental conditions on adsorption performance were also analyzed. The PCFP derived biosorbent was successful in removal of both Al(III) and Cu(II) ions in single (non–competitive) and binary (competitive) aqueous systems with 99, 70 and 91% adsorption rates, respectively. The biosorption process follows the Ho’s pseudo–second order kinetics. Furthermore, the Langmuir isotherm model was found helpful in explaining the adsorption mechanism. The dominating electrostatic interaction between adsorbents and adsorbates demonstrates monolayer adsorption at the binding sites on the surface of the peeling. Finally, the findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the adsorption process, as well as future system design applications in the treatment of heavy metal containing waste effluents.

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