Catalytic conversion of fructose to levulinic and formic acids over tin-containing superacid (H0 = −14.52) mixed oxide was studied. Mesoporous ZrO2–SiO2–SnO2 (Zr:Si:Sn = 1:2:0.4) was synthesized by the sol–gel method. The fructose transformation was carried out in a rotated autoclave at 160–190 °C for 1–5 h using a 20 wt.% aqueous solution. The results showed that doping ZrO2–SiO2 samples with Sn4+ ions improved both fructose conversion and selectivity toward levulinic and formic acids. Under optimal conditions of 180 °C, 3.5 h and fructose to catalyst weight ratio 20:1, levulinic and formic acids yields were 80% and 90%, respectively, at complete fructose conversion. At this, humic substances formed in the quantity of 10 wt.% based on the target products.
The suitability of sewage-sludge derived washing agents (SS_WAs) (dissolved organic matter DOM; humic-like substances HLS; soluble humic substances SHS), was assessed for removing Cd from highly contaminated (300 mg/kg) sandy clay loam and clay. The soils were remediated via column flushing at two flow rates, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/min. The stability of the flow velocity (FV) depended on the type of SS_WA and decreased in the following order: DOM > HLS > SHS. Cd was most effectively removed during the first hours of flushing, and the process proceeded with a first-order kinetics. The overall process efficiency was higher at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min than at 0.5 mL/min and ranged from 65.7 (SHS) to 75.5% (DOM) for the sandy clay loam and from 64.7% (SHS) to 67.8% (DOM) for the clay. However, all SS_WAs at both flow rates removed the most mobile Cd fraction (F1) with an efficiency above 90%. Flushing improved soil characteristics in terms of the content of organic matter, humic substances and nutrients. Among all SS_WAs, DOM was the most suitable for remediation of highly Cd-contaminated soils due to high efficiency of Cd removal, the high stability of its FV during flushing and the simple manner of DOM recovery from sewage sludge.
Background. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), especially macrophages, play an important role in the body defense against various pathogens. Their dysfunction and polarization are associated with most inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The inflammatory process is regulated by activation and / or inhibition of genes differentially expressed by macrophages. Successful correction of inflammation leads firstly to elimination of inflammatory stimuli and then to remodeling and restoration of tissues and organs. It was experimentally confirmed that silvercontaining bionanocomposites based on natural humic substances (HS) obtained from coal of different origin, as well as initial matrices of these HS, are capable of activating pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of macrophages.Aim. To study cytotoxic, pyrogenic, and immunomodulatory properties (arginine balance) of initial HS samples and samples of silver nanoparticles ultradispersed in these HS matrices (HS-AgNPs) in the cell culture of peritoneal macrophages, as well as their effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of APCs.Materials and methods. Cultural and biochemical methods were used in the study.Results. The study showed that the samples CHE-K, CHE-AgNPs, CHS-K, and CHP-K increased M1 macrophage polarization due to stimulation of the NO-synthase activity and inhibition of arginase. The samples CHI-K, CHIAgNPs, CHP-AgNPs, and CHS-AgNPs modulated an alternative M2 or M2-like state of macrophage activation. At the same time, HS are not cytotoxic at effective concentrations, and three out of four studied samples did not contain pyrogenic impurities.Conclusion. The use of HS and their silver-containing bionanocomposites, which have the ability to greatly affect the polarization of antigen-presenting cells, is a promising research area in correction of the inflammatory response for solving an important social and medical problem of treating chronic wounds.