vascular plants
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Irfan ◽  
G. Jan ◽  
W. Murad ◽  
F. G. Jan ◽  
A. Rauf ◽  
...  

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Author(s):  
David Stenitzer ◽  
Réka Mócsai ◽  
Harald Zechmeister ◽  
Ralf Reski ◽  
Eva L. Decker ◽  
...  

In the animal kingdom, a stunning variety of N-glycan structures have emerged with phylogenetic specificities of various kinds. In the plant kingdom, however, N-glycosylation appears to be strictly conservative and uniform. From mosses to all kinds of gymno- and angiosperms, land plants mainly express structures with the common pentasaccharide core substituted with xylose, core α1,3-fucose, maybe terminal GlcNAc residues and Lewis A determinants. In contrast, green algae biosynthesise unique and unusual N-glycan structures with uncommon monosaccharides, a plethora of different structures and various kinds of O-methylation. Mosses, a group of plants that are separated by at least 400 million years of evolution from vascular plants, have hitherto been seen as harbouring an N-glycosylation machinery identical to that of vascular plants. To challenge this view, we analysed the N-glycomes of several moss species using MALDI-TOF/TOF, PGC-MS/MS and GC-MS. While all species contained the plant-typical heptasaccharide with no, one or two terminal GlcNAc residues (MMXF, MGnXF and GnGnXF, respectively), many species exhibited MS signals with 14.02 Da increments as characteristic for O-methylation. Throughout all analysed moss N-glycans, the level of methylation differed strongly even within the same family. In some species, methylated glycans dominated, while others had no methylation at all. GC-MS revealed the main glycan from Funaria hygrometrica to contain 2,6-O-methylated terminal mannose. Some mosses additionally presented very large, likewise methylated complex-type N-glycans. This first finding of the methylation of N-glycans in land plants mirrors the presumable phylogenetic relation of mosses to green algae, where the O-methylation of mannose and many other monosaccharides is a common trait.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Natalia Gamova

Baikalsky State Nature Biosphere Reserve is situated in the central part of the Khamar-Daban Range (Southern Baikal, Siberia), in three administrative districts of Republic of Buryatia (i.e. Kabansky District, Dzhidinsky District and Selenginsky District), Russia. In general, this territory has been relatively well studied by botanists, but until now there was no detailed information about the flora of the Reserve with precise geographic localities. Moreover, some records in the Baikalsky Reserve's flora were published without references to documenting herbarium specimens. The dataset contains 39,238 unique occurrences of 875 taxa (854 species, 14 subspecies, five varieties and two species aggregates) from the Baikalsky Reserve and its buffer zone. All the data were acquired during the field studies by the author in 2009–2021, when 152 taxa (17.3% of all the taxa included into the dataset) were first recorded by the author from the study area. Herbarium vouchers are preserved in the Moscow University Herbarium (MW). This dataset is the first attempt at creating a database of vascular plants of the Baikalsky Reserve and its buffer zone, based on modern research. These data will provide the background for the updated check-list of the Baikalsky Reserve's flora.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ksenia Popova ◽  
Anna Razumovskaya

The Rybachy and the Sredny Peninsulas are the northernmost part of Murmansk Region in the European part of Russia. While the most part of the Region is covered by boreal forest, the Peninsulas are covered by tundra. The vegetation and flora of Murmansk Region are well studied at present. The Peninsulas were first studied in 1829 by a Finnish botanist Jacob Fellman. The most comprehensive research was conducted in the late 19th - early 20th century. Nevertheless, the species composition of the Peninsulas' flora has changed significantly over the past 100 years due to land use and climate change. The aim of this dataset is to make the data on species occurrences for this territory digitally available via GBIF. To date, more or less complete digital floristic data were provided only by the project for digitising the book "Flora of Murmansk Region" (1953–1966). The present dataset is a part of the project studying the vegetation of the territory. We recorded the information about species frequency and distribution using the relevé method. We present a dataset based on 991 relevés from all vegetation types, which includes 16,289 records of georeferenced plant occurrences that belong to 568 species. There are 23 species of lichens (Ascomycota), 142 species of mosses (Bryophyta), three species of liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and 400 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) in the present dataset. The taxonomic diversity and unevenness result from the vegetation sampling. The data were collected in 2008, 2009, 2011, 2014 and 2015. The dataset cannot be considered as a complete vegetation database or a flora checklist, but it contains the occurrences and frequencies of the species from all the vegetation types.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mikhail Kozhin ◽  
Alexander Sennikov

The non-native vascular plants of Murmansk Region (European Russia) are under active investigation towards the compilation of the first complete checklist. This work is part of the project 'Flora of Russian Lapland', which ultimately aims at the complete inventory of the taxonomy, distribution and status of vascular plant species in Murmansk Region, based on the comprehensive database of herbarium specimens, field observations and literature. New territory-level records of non-native vascular plants emerged during our inventory of herbarium collections and recent fieldwork. Fourteen species (Anthemis ruthenica, Aruncus dioicus, Bromus commutatus, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Galega orientalis, Geum aleppicum, Leonurus quinquelobatus, Lepidium densiflorum, Levisticum officinale, Myrrhis odorata, Phleum phleoides, Prunus armeniaca, Rorippa sylvestris, Senecio vernalis) are reported as new to Murmansk Region. The historical occurrences of alien plants appeared in the territory largely as contaminants (of seed or forage). In particular, Rorippa sylvestris and Senecio vernalis arrived with the forage imported during the Second World War. All recent occurrences originated by escape from confinement (ornamental purposes, horticulture, agriculture), reflecting a high diversity of the modern assortment of cultivated plants in commerce and private gardens. Regarding the invasion status, five alien species are considered casual and eight species are treated as locally established or persisting (for uncertain time). Only one species, Galega orientalis, is considered naturalised and capable of further spreading in the territory, although without invasive potential.


Author(s):  
Quinn M.R. Webber ◽  
Kristy Ferraro ◽  
Jack Hendrix ◽  
Eric Vander Wal

Historically the study of diet caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (Gmelin, 1788)) has been specific to herds and few comprehensive circumpolar analyses of Rangifer diet exist. As a result, the importance of certain diet items may play an outsized role in the caribou diet zeitgeist, e.g., lichen. It is incumbent to challenge this notion and test the relevant importance of various diet items within the context of prevailing hypotheses. We provide a systematic overview of 30 caribou studies reporting caribou diet and test biologically relevant hypotheses about spatial and temporal dietary variation. Our results indicate that in the winter caribou primarily consume lichen, but in warmer seasons, and primary productivity is lower, caribou primarily consume graminoids and other vascular plants. In more productive environments, where caribou have more competitors and predators, consumption of lichen increased. Overall, our description of caribou diet reveals that caribou diet is highly variable, but in circumstances where they can consume vascular plants, they will. As climate change affects Boreal and Arctic ecosystems, the type and volume of food consumed by caribou has become an increasingly important focus for conservation and management of caribou.


2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 01007
Author(s):  
S.A. Sheremetova ◽  
S.N. Vityaz ◽  
E.B. Rotkina ◽  
S.I. Mikhailova

The article presents the materials of studies of the adventive flora of the Kemerovo region. For the territory of the Kemerovo region, we identified 244 alien species belonging to 162 genera and 50 families. As a result of the increasing process of invasion of new species into the territory of the region, the need for constant monitoring of alien species for the degree of their naturalization, especially in natural cenoses, is urgent. The problem of synanthropic plant species is becoming increasingly important not only for economically developed territories, but also for the relatively preserved mountain regions of Kuzbass. As a result of the studies, it was found that the synanthropic fraction of the Kuzbass flora, consisting of adventive and apophyte species, accounts for about 18% of the total composition of the flora of vascular plants in the Kemerovo region (60 apophyte species, 244 – advent ones). The revealed heterogeneity in the chorological, ecological and biological terms of the species of the adventive fraction makes it possible to find suitable conditions in various types of ecotopes on the territory of the Kemerovo region. This type of work can serve as a basis for developing a strategy for the preservation of natural phytosystems of Kuzbass.


2022 ◽  
pp. 76-100
Author(s):  
Sreekumari Kurissery ◽  
Leah Katherine Shaw ◽  
Nandakumar Kanavillil

The term “endophyte” comes from words “endo” meaning within and “phyton” meaning plant. In 1866, De Bary first defined an endophyte as any organism that resides in the tissues of plants but not causing any harm. Thus, endophytes can be a microorganism, usually fungi or bacteria, that colonizes plants parts. The plant tissues/parts where endophytes grow include healthy leaves, petioles, stems, twigs, bark, roots, fruits, flowers, and seeds. They are found virtually in every one of the 300,000 species of vascular plants. Many endophytes co-exist in a single plant host with their populations ranging from one to hundreds of bacterial/fungal species. This chapter outlines a historical perspective of endophytes including ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery. Also, this chapter provides upto date information on the emerging role of endophytes in the sustainability of pasture and economy of agriculture, thereby contributing to the environmental sustainability.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 293-304
Author(s):  
Iwona Dembicz ◽  
Jürgen Dengler ◽  
François Gillet ◽  
Thomas J. Matthews ◽  
Manuel J. Steinbauer ◽  
...  

Aims: To quantify how fine-grain (within-plot) beta diversity differs among biomes and vegetation types. Study area: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We extracted 4,654 nested-plot series with at least four different grain sizes between 0.0001 m² and 1,024 m² from the GrassPlot database spanning broad geographic and ecological gradients. Next, we calculated the slope parameter (z-value) of the power-law species–area relationship (SAR) to use as a measure of multiplicative beta diversity. We did this separately for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens and for the three groups combined (complete vegetation). We then tested whether z-values differed between biomes, ecological-physiognomic vegetation types at coarse and fine levels and phytosociological classes. Results: We found that z-values varied significantly among biomes and vegetation types. The explanatory power of area for species richness was highest for vascular plants, followed by complete vegetation, bryophytes and lichens. Within each species group, the explained variance increased with typological resolution. In vascular plants, adjusted R2 was 0.14 for biomes, but reached 0.50 for phytosociological classes. Among the biomes, mean z-values were particularly high in the Subtropics with winter rain (Mediterranean biome) and the Dry tropics and subtropics. Natural grasslands had higher z-values than secondary grasslands. Alpine and Mediterranean vegetation types had particularly high z-values whereas managed grasslands with benign soil and climate conditions and saline communities were characterised by particularly low z-values. Conclusions: In this study relating fine-grain beta diversity to typological units, we found distinct patterns. As we explain in a conceptual figure, these can be related to ultimate drivers, such as productivity, stress and disturbance, which can influence z-values via multiple pathways. The provided means, medians and quantiles of z-values for a wide range of typological entities provide benchmarks for local to continental studies, while calling for additional data from under-represented units. Syntaxonomic references: Mucina et al. (2016) for classes occurring in Europe; Ermakov (2012) for classes restricted to Asia. Abbreviations: ANOVA = analysis of variance; EDGG = Eurasian Dry Grassland Group; SAR = species-area relationship.


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