supply management
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Natalya Andrianova ◽  
Polina Nechaeva

Intellectual contracts based on blockchain technology improve the efficiency of supply management of an automobile enterprise by optimizing the transactional costs of supply logistics. The present research featured KAMAZ PTC. The goal was to develop an interaction mechanism for all participants of an intellectual contract in supply activities. The article includes a review of Russian and foreign publications about intellectual contracts in various business spheres, supply management efficiency, optimization of transactional costs, and blockchain technology. The study made it possible to build an interaction mechanism of the parties involved in a blockchain intellectual contract. It also revealed a pattern of changes introduced to the intellectual contract at different stages of interaction between the initiator and suppliers. The authors also highlighted the difference between smart contract and intellectual contract. An intellectual contract appears as a logical development of a smart contract and allows the sides to change the terms. The party interaction mechanism can improve the supply efficiency as it optimizes the magnitude of transactional costs.

2022 ◽  
Subrat Gupta ◽  

Abstract AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The mandatory lockdown restrictions and curtailment strategies towards mass gatherings imposed by the government amid the COVID-19 outbreak, the organization of the voluntary blood donation camps were suspended and in house donations were limited leading to scarcity of blood With this we intend to assess the effect of this mass lockdown on our blood supply management in four phases [phase-I prior to the outbreak] ,phase-II[during the outbreak], Phase-III: The declining phase [Oct20-Feb21] and Phase IV: The second wave [March21-may21] MATERIALS AND METHOD : This is a retrospective study of twenty months of a blood bank supplying to a 1200 bedded multi-specialty Tertiary Care Academic Hospital in Lucknow. The study was divided into four phases namely: • Phase-I: Pre-pandemic phase [Oct’19 to Feb’20] • Phase-II: The full-blown pandemic phase [Mar 20-Sep 20] • Phase-III: The declining phase [Oct20-Feb21] • Phase IV: The second wave [March21-may21] Details of the blood units collected both in-house as well as in the VBDC’s were used for the study. The date of collection, expiry and date of issue for each packed red blood cell [PRBC] units were noted. The components prepared from the whole blood was also noted. The average In-house donations were tabulated. The various components issued month wise was also noted. The supply of Convalescent plasma in all the three phases was tabulate RESULT: The average whole blood collection pre pandemic was 1103 units (55%), 768units (51%) in pandemic phase, 1219units (61%) in declining phase and only 692units (21%) in second wave of the pandemic. In Phase I 27 VBDC collected 1153 units (58%) and in Phase III 8 VBDC collected 236units(12%) Due to restrictions in mass gatherings and lockdown enforced, the whole blood collections from Phase II and Phase IV was 93units (6.5%) and 76units (2.2%) only. In Phase I, the average In House Donation was 33.6%, In Phase II it was12%, In Phase III was 5.75% and lastly in Phase IV was 5.4% The PRBC issued on an average in the four phases was 59%, 48%, 55% and 26% respectively. Similarly the FFP issued in Phase I , II, III and IV was 62%,34%,58% and 20%. Lastly the RDP issued was 15%, 13%, 19% and 4.5% in all the various phases. CONCLUSION: Our study concluded that COVID 19 pandemic had a negative impact on total number of In-house donations, voluntary blood donation camps, blood stock inventory and transfusion recipients along with taking a major toll on health and safety of our blood bank staff as well. With little insight of the disease and everyday learning, by motivating more voluntary donors and health care workers the efficient chain of blood supply and demand can be maintained as the virus is to stay with us for a long time.

2022 ◽  
pp. 146-163
Seeprata Parajuli ◽  
Ruby Shrestha ◽  
Niranjan Devkota ◽  
Sashi Rana Magar ◽  
Sharad Rajbhandari ◽  

This chapter aims to analyze the practice of green supply chain management and organization performance in manufacturing industries of Kathmandu valley. This study uses descriptive research design. Two hundred and seven manufacturing industries in three industrial estates (Balaju, Bhaktapur, and Patan) of Kathmandu valley were taken as a sample for the study whereas all 245 operating industries were the population of the study. The findings revealed that 33.3% of industries are highly practicing green supply management chain whereas 23.7% and 19.6% are practicing it moderately and less, respectively. It was found that industries of all scale—large, medium, and low—are equally practicing green supply management chain to a greater extent. Thus, the study concludes that manufacturing industries ought to consider the systemic interaction between the internal and external facets of the application of the GSCM and to ensure that their respective operations are integrated in order to achieve improved environmental and organizational efficiency and consequently to achieve economic benefits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 85-92
Bilha Saro ◽  
Pauline Keitany ◽  
Williter Rop

Supply management is increasingly becoming a focus in this 21st century. For an organisation to compete and successfully operate in the current risky supply management atmosphere, it must apply control measures that are effective within its internal supply management. The supply management environment today is characterised by many risk factors that may have a negative impact on the inventory control operations of an enterprise. However, there is an outcry in the universities procurement sector for inadequate stock control. The paper aims to establish the relationship between inventory audit and supply management in public and private universities in Nakuru County. The study was guided by stock diffusion. The study adopted a correlation research design. The target population of this study was 115 employees drawn from the procurement department from Egerton and Kabarak University since their headquarters are found in Nakuru County. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select the respondents of the study from the two Universities. Taro Yamane’s formula was used to obtain a sample size of 89 respondents. The data were analysed using both quantitative and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that inventory audits were efficiently done. This was improved by ensuring accuracy in recording. The universities also ensure that costs are well controlled to reduce waste and mismanagement of resources in the universities. The inventory audit was also done periodically to ensure all university property and resources were secured. Hence, there existed a significant relationship between inventory audit and supply management (R = 0.836, P<0.05). The study concluded that inventory auditing had a significant influence on supply management. The study recommended that the universities had room for the elimination of shortages, losses and wastage through periodic inventory audits. The universities should also adopt an electronic inventory management system that can make tracking easy

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