cement mortar
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Salmabanu Luhar ◽  
Ismail Luhar ◽  
Faiz Uddin Ahmed Shaikh

The development of cracks, owing to a relatively lower tensile strength of concrete, diverse loading, and environmental factors driving the deterioration of structures, is an inescapable key concern for engineers. Reparation and maintenance operations are thus extremely important to prevent cracks from spreading and mitigating the lifetime of structures. However, ease of access to the cracked zone may be challenging, and it also needs funds and manual power. Hence, autonomous sealing of cracks employing microorganisms into the concrete sans manual intervention is a promising solution to the dilemma of the sustainable improvement of concrete. ‘Ureolytic bacteria’, key organism species in rumen-producing ‘urease’ enzymes such as Bacillus pasteurii or subtilis—when induced—are capable of producing calcium carbonate precipitations into the concrete. As their cell wall is anionic, CaCO3 accumulation on their surface is extensive, and the whole cell, therefore, becomes crystalline and ultimately plugs pores and cracks. This natural induction technique is an environmentally friendly method that researchers are studying intensively. This manuscript reviews the application process of bacterial healing to manufacture autonomous self-healing bacterial concrete. Additionally, it provides a brief review of diverse attributes of this novel concrete which demonstrate the variations with the auto-addition of different bacteria, along with an evaluation of crack healing as a result of the addition of these bacteria directly into concrete or after encapsulation in a protective shell. Comparative assessment techniques for autonomous, bio-based self-healing are also discussed, accompanied by progress, potential, modes of application of this technique, and its resultant benefits in the context of strength and durability. Imperatives for quantitative sustainability assessment and industrial adoption are identified, along with the sealing of artificially cracked cement mortar with sand as a filling material in given spaces, as well as urea and CaCl2 medium treatment with Bacillus pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria. The assessment of the impact on the compressive strength and rigidity of cement mortar cubes after the addition of bacteria into the mix is also considered. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images on the function of bacteria in mineral precipitation that is microbiologically induced are also reviewed. Lastly, future research scope and present gaps are recognised and discussed.

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