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Pharmacy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Sarah Grace Gunter ◽  
Mary Joyce B. Wingler ◽  
David A. Cretella ◽  
Jamie L. Wagner ◽  
Katie E. Barber ◽  

Limited data are available regarding optimal antimicrobial therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) versus oral step-down treatment of pediatric SAB. This study evaluated patients aged 3 months to 18 years that received at least 72 h of inpatient treatment for SAB. The primary endpoint was 30-day readmission. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay and inpatient mortality. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. The median age was 7.9 years. Patients who underwent oral step-down were less likely to be immunocompromised and more likely to have community-acquired SAB from osteomyelitis or skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). More patients in the IV therapy group had a 30-day readmission (10 (25.6%) vs. 3 (5.3%), p = 0.006). Mortality was low (5 (5%)) and not statistically different between groups. Length of stay was greater in patients receiving IV therapy only (11 vs. 7 days, p = 0.001). In this study, over half of the patients received oral step-down therapy and 30-day readmission was low for this group. Oral therapy appears to be safe and effective for patients with SAB from osteomyelitis or SSTIs.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 342
Jen-Fu Huang ◽  
Chih-Po Hsu ◽  
Chun-Hsiang Ouyang ◽  
Chi-Tung Cheng ◽  
Chia-Cheng Wang ◽  

This study aimed to assess current evidence regarding the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on the prognosis in patients sustaining trauma. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched with the following terms: “trace element”, “selenium”, “copper”, “zinc”, “injury”, and “trauma”. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that Se supplementation was associated with a lower mortality rate (OR 0.733, 95% CI: 0.586, 0.918, p = 0.007; heterogeneity, I2 = 0%). Regarding the incidence of infectious complications, there was no statistically significant benefit after analyzing the four studies (OR 0.942, 95% CI: 0.695, 1.277, p = 0.702; heterogeneity, I2 = 14.343%). The patients with Se supplementation had a reduced ICU length of stay (standard difference in means (SMD): −0.324, 95% CI: −0.382, −0.265, p < 0.001; heterogeneity, I2 = 0%) and lesser hospital length of stay (SMD: −0.243, 95% CI: −0.474, −0.012, p < 0.001; heterogeneity, I2 = 45.496%). Se supplementation after trauma confers positive effects in decreasing the mortality and length of ICU and hospital stay.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261216
Zhuo Wang ◽  
Yuanyuan Liu ◽  
Luyi Wei ◽  
John S. Ji ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  

Background The global epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has resulted in substantial healthcare resource consumption. Since patients’ hospital length of stay (LoS) is at stake in the process, an investigation of COVID-19 patients’ LoS and its risk factors becomes urgent for a better understanding of regional capabilities to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks. Methods First, we obtained retrospective data of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Sichuan province via National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and field surveys, including their demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics and LoS. Then we estimated the relationship between LoS and the possibly determinant factors, including demographic characteristics of confirmed patients, individual treatment behavior, local medical resources and hospital grade. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were applied for single factor and multi-factor survival analysis. Results From January 16, 2020 to March 4, 2020, 538 human cases of COVID-19 infection were laboratory-confirmed, and were hospitalized for treatment, including 271 (50%) patients aged ≥ 45, 285 (53%) males, and 450 patients (84%) with mild symptoms. The median LoS was 19 (interquartile range (IQR): 14–23, range: 3–41) days. Univariate analysis showed that age and clinical grade were strongly related to LoS (P<0.01). Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the longer LoS was associated with those aged ≥ 45 (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60–0.91), admission to provincial hospital (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54–0.99), and severe illness (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48–0.90). By contrast, the shorter LoS was linked with residential areas with more than 5.5 healthcare workers per 1,000 population (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05–1.65). Neither gender factor nor time interval from illness onset to diagnosis showed significant impact on LoS. Conclusions Understanding COVID-19 patients’ hospital LoS and its risk factors is critical for governments’ efficient allocation of resources in respective regions. In areas with older and more vulnerable population and in want of primary medical resources, early reserving and strengthening of the construction of multi-level medical institutions are strongly suggested to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhimin Liang ◽  
Xiaofan Deng ◽  
Lingli Li ◽  
Jing Wang

Aim: To compare the arthroscopy vs. arthrotomy for the treatment of native knee septic arthritis.Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. Retrospective comparative studies comparing arthroscopy or arthrotomy for patients with septic arthritis of the native knee were eligible for this review. The primary outcome was recurrence of infection after first procedure. The secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, operative time, range of motion of the involved knee after surgery, overall complications and mortality rate,Results: Thirteen trials were included in this study. There were a total of 2,162 septic arthritis knees treated with arthroscopic debridement and irrigation, and 1,889 septic arthritis knees treated with open debridement and irrigation. Arthroscopy and arthrotomy management of the knee septic arthritis showed comparable rate of reinfection (OR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57–1.27; P = 0.44). No significant difference was observed in hospital length of stay, operative time and mortality rate between arthroscopy and arthrotomy management group, while arthroscopy treatment was associated with significantly higher knee range of motion and lower complication rate when compared with arthrotomy treatment.Conclusion: Arthroscopy and arthrotomy showed similar efficacy in infection eradication in the treatment of native septic knee. However, arthroscopy treatment was associated with better postoperative functional recovery and lower complication rate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Belal Alsinglawi ◽  
Osama Alshari ◽  
Mohammed Alorjani ◽  
Omar Mubin ◽  
Fady Alnajjar ◽  

AbstractThis work introduces a predictive Length of Stay (LOS) framework for lung cancer patients using machine learning (ML) models. The framework proposed to deal with imbalanced datasets for classification-based approaches using electronic healthcare records (EHR). We have utilized supervised ML methods to predict lung cancer inpatients LOS during ICU hospitalization using the MIMIC-III dataset. Random Forest (RF) Model outperformed other models and achieved predicted results during the three framework phases. With clinical significance features selection, over-sampling methods (SMOTE and ADASYN) achieved the highest AUC results (98% with CI 95%: 95.3–100%, and 100% respectively). The combination of Over-sampling and under-sampling achieved the second-highest AUC results (98%, with CI 95%: 95.3–100%, and 97%, CI 95%: 93.7–100% SMOTE-Tomek, and SMOTE-ENN respectively). Under-sampling methods reported the least important AUC results (50%, with CI 95%: 40.2–59.8%) for both (ENN and Tomek- Links). Using ML explainable technique called SHAP, we explained the outcome of the predictive model (RF) with SMOTE class balancing technique to understand the most significant clinical features that contributed to predicting lung cancer LOS with the RF model. Our promising framework allows us to employ ML techniques in-hospital clinical information systems to predict lung cancer admissions into ICU.

Medicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Abdallah Fayssoil ◽  
Nicolas Mansencal ◽  
Lee S. Nguyen ◽  
David Orlikowski ◽  
Hélène Prigent ◽  

In cardiac surgery, patients are at risk of phrenic nerve injury, which leads to diaphragm dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm dysfunction (DD) is relatively frequent in cardiac surgery and particularly affects patients after coronary artery bypass graft. The onset of DD affects patients’ prognosis in term of weaning from mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. The authors present a narrative review about diaphragm physiology, techniques used to assess diaphragm function, and the clinical application of diaphragm ultrasound in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Arianna L. Gianakos ◽  
Bishoy N. Saad ◽  
Richard Haring ◽  
Luke G. Menken ◽  
Sherif Elkattaway ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jason M. Pogue ◽  
Yun Zhou ◽  
Hemanth Kanakamedala ◽  
Bin Cai

Abstract Background Carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a concerning pathogen in the USA and worldwide. Methods To assess the comparative burden of CR vs carbapenem-susceptible (CS) A. baumannii, this retrospective cohort study analyzed data from adult patients in 250 US hospitals from the Premier HealthCare Database (2014–2019). The outcomes analyzed included hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, discharge status, in-hospital mortality, readmission rates and hospital charges. Logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariable assessment of the independent relationship between relevant covariates, with a focus on CR status, and in-hospital mortality. Results 2047 Patients with CR and 3476 patients with CS A. baumannii infections were included. CR A. baumannii was more commonly isolated in respiratory tract infections (CR 40.7% and CS 27.0%, P < 0.01), whereas CS A. baumannii was more frequently associated with bloodstream infections (CS 16.7% and CR 8.6%, P < 0.01). Patients with CR A. baumannii infections had higher in-hospital (CR 16.4% vs CS 10.0%; P < 0.01) and 30-day (CR 32.2% vs CS 21.6%; P < 0.01) mortality compared to those with CS infections. After adjusting for age, sex, admission source, infection site, comorbidities, and treatment with in vitro active antibiotics within 72 h, carbapenem resistance was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.42 [95% confidence interval 1.15; 1.75], P < 0.01). CR infections were also associated with increases in hospital length of stay (CR 11 days vs CS 9 days; P < 0.01), rate of intensive care unit utilization (CR 62.3% vs CS 45.1%; P < 0.01), rate of readmission with A. baumannii infections (CR 17.8% vs CS 4.0%; P < 0.01) and hospital charges. Conclusions These data suggest that the burden of illness is significantly greater for patients with CR A. baumannii infections and are at higher risk of mortality compared with CS infections in US hospitals.

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