Self Efficacy
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yaqin Geng ◽  
Ting Liu ◽  
Yu Ding ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Jiayi Ye ◽  

To explore the application of self-efficacy in X-ray image analysis based on deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) in the care and treatment of osteoporosis patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, 90 patients with osteoporosis were divided into the control group and the experimental group for DCNN combined with X-ray diagnosis. Patients in the control group were given routine nursing care, and those in the experimental group were given comprehensive nursing care. The bone mineral content, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression in the femur and lumbar spine after care were compared. The results showed that the accuracy, sensitivity, and false-negative rate of X-ray image recognition of osteoporosis based on DCNN were 91%, 98%, and 2%, respectively. The bone mineral contents of femur and lumbar vertebra in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). The anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy scores of patients in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). In conclusion, the accuracy rate of DCNN combined with X-ray plain film imaging in the detection of osteoporosis is high. Comprehensive nursing intervention can improve the curative effect and self-efficacy of patients. The improvement of self-efficacy is a related factor for the improvement of patients’ negative emotions and quality of life.

2021 ◽  
Teresa Ober ◽  
Alison Cheng ◽  
Maxwell Hong ◽  
Kathleen Morse

To better understand the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on today's college students and tomorrow's workforce, a survey was administered to 992 U.S. college students (Meanage=22.36 years, SDage=5.24; %female=53.3) between February and June 2021 on academic assessment practices they experienced before and after COVID-19. Females reported greater test anxiety and lower computer self-efficacy; neither varied based on race/ethnicity nor parental education. Most reported a transition to an online modality during the COVID-19 outbreak with a decrease in classroom assessments. Though classroom assessment formats appeared to change minimally, assessment administration changed markedly during the pandemic-affected period. Untimed and open-book assessments became more common. Assessments administered in-class and in-person proctored became less frequent. Interestingly, during spring 2021, as many colleges returned to in-person instruction, open-book, outside of class, and exams proctored online or unproctored remained common, suggesting a persistent shift in assessment administration practices. Students generally did not feel that exams covered any less content, however cheating was a concern. Most indicated it was difficult to concentrate and reported the idea of taking an exam was stressful during the pandemic, though many still believed that it is important to have assessments to demonstrate learning. Some noted they no longer planned to take certain standardized exams (e.g., GRE) given changes in admission requirements of post-baccalaureate academic programs. Some felt deterred from pursuing further education, yet others felt more inclined given perceptions of a highly competitive job market. Implications of these findings are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Sheri L. Clark ◽  
Christina Dyar ◽  
Elizabeth M. Inman ◽  
Nina Maung ◽  
Bonita London

Abstract Background Innovation in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields in the U.S. is threatened by a lack of diversity. Social identity threat research finds messages in the academic environment devalue women and underrepresented groups in STEM, creating a chilly and hostile environment. Research has focused on the mechanisms that contribute to STEM engagement and interest at the K-12 and undergraduate level, but the mechanisms that predict sustained engagement at the graduate level have not been studied. Results In a longitudinal study of doctoral students in STEM disciplines, we demonstrate that students’ beliefs that their STEM colleagues believe intelligence is a fixed (vs. malleable) trait undermine women’s engagement in STEM. Specifically, perceiving a fixed ability environment predicts greater perceptions of sexism, which erode women’s self-efficacy and sense of belongingness and lead women to consider dropping out of their STEM career. Conclusion These findings identify one potential pathway by which women leave their STEM fields, perpetuating gender disparities in STEM.

2021 ◽  
Teresa Ober ◽  
Cheng Liu ◽  
Matt Carter ◽  
Alison Cheng

We develop and present validity evidence for a new 12-item self-report measure of test anxiety, the Trait Test Anxiety Inventory - Short (TTAI-S), following Kane’s validation framework. Data were collected from three independent samples of college students in the U.S. (N=552; Mage=22.25 years). Scoring validity was evidenced by good internal consistency and confirmed structure as a single factor. Generalization validity was evidenced by scalar measurement invariance based on the sample (Internet v. community) and subgroups (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment). Extrapolation validity was evidenced by significant associations between the TTAI-S score and two theoretically relevant constructs (state test anxiety, self-efficacy). These findings support the psychometric integrity of the TTAI-S, which may be used to investigate trait test anxiety in a variety of contexts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Haiying Wang ◽  
Yaning Li ◽  
Chang Zhou ◽  
Haizhe Jin ◽  
Lin Wang

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of multidimensional psychological characteristics on users’ feedback intention by using several statistical analysis methods based on information theory. The feedback process can be described as a communication process based on information theory. The feedback information entropy is associated with the degree of uncertainty elimination of the users who provide feedback information. Many factors are related to this uncertainty, such as information senders often stopped feedback process for some reasons and information senders may have provided fake or spam information. In order to encourage more useful feedback information, a model of a user’s willingness to provide feedback was established with personality traits and cognitive styles as independent variables, feedback motivation as intermediary variables, and feedback willingness as the dependent variable. 206 online and offline questionnaires were obtained to be analyzed by correlation analysis, regression analysis, and structural equation analysis. Cronbach’s α coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire, and exploratory factor analysis method was used to verify the validity of the questionnaire. First, correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between personality traits, cognitive styles, and motivation factors. Second, we further explored the strength of the relationship of the five correlated groups of variables through linear regression analysis. At last, we conducted structure equation analyses to test the hypotheses. The results show that both personality traits and cognitive styles can have a significant impact on feedback motivation factors and also show that self-efficacy may be the only evident feedback motivation to encourage useful feedback information. The results show that the willing users with extraversion trait are more likely be motivated by self-efficacy and thus have evident feedback willingness.

Nicola Peddie ◽  
Austyn Snowden ◽  
Tony Westbury

AbstractPhysical activity (PA) has been shown to be beneficial for physical and mental wellbeing. However, there is evidence to indicate people with mental health conditions are significantly less active than the general population. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Living Becomes Achievable (ALBA), a behaviour change intervention designed to specifically target individuals with mental and physical health conditions to increase motivation and adherence to physical activity to improve physical and mental wellbeing. 318 participants were recruited through existing exercise referral schemes in three areas of Scotland. A quantitative outcome evaluation, with a before and after design was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Participants completed 5 outcome measures—the Scottish Physical Activity Questionnaire (SPAQ), the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE), the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale—and wore an activity tracker for 16 weeks. Participants who opted into the long-term study were monitored for up to 12-months. ALBA significantly improved mental wellbeing, patient activation and self-efficacy. Although the intervention did not appear to increase adherence to PA. The ALBA intervention was effective at improving mental wellbeing but did not have a significant effect on PA levels. This suggests that the additional support offered through the ALBA intervention was key to improving wellbeing.

Maxwell Peprah Opoku ◽  
Elvis Agyei‐Okyere ◽  
William Nketsia ◽  
Eric Lawer Torgbenu ◽  
Emmanuel Opoku Kumi

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258642
Ayenew Kassie Tesema ◽  
Kegnie Shitu ◽  
Asmamaw Adugna ◽  
Simegnew Handebo

Background The Ethiopian Federal government has locked down schools as one measure to contain Covid-19 pandemic. Psychological effect of COVID-19 on students is increased due to the reopening of schools. The psychological effect of the pandemic is increasing along with physical aspect of health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the psychological impact of Covid-19 and its contributing factors of students’ behavior in Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional design was conducted from November to December 2020. Data were collected using pre tested self- administered questionnaire from secondary school students in Gondar city North West Ethiopia. Stratified simple random sampling technique was used to select 403 secondary school students. Data were entered and cleaned with Epidata version 4.62 and exported for analysis STATA version 14. Multivariable logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used to show the association of dependent and independent variables. Independent variables in relation to dependent variable measured using odd ratios and B coefficient with 95% confidence interval for Covid-19 anxiety and preventive behavior of Covid-19 respectively were used. Results A total of 370 students were participated giving response rate of 92%. The prevalence of Covid-19 anxiety and obsession among secondary school students were 38.1% and 40.27% respectively. Being 11thgrade 54% (AOR = 0.46; 95%CI:0.22, 0.95) and increased knowledge16% (AOR = 0.84;95%CI: 0.77, 0.89) score associated with decreased COVID-19 anxiety while Covid-19 obsession, 14.51 times (AOR = 14.51;95%CI: 8.05, 26.17), and being female 1.6 times (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.51) increased Covid-19 Anxiety. Furthermore, increased self-efficacy 0.5 times (B = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.28, 0.62), and increased cues to action 0.4 times (B = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.69) increased preventive behavior of Covid-19 while perceived barrier 0.1 times (B = -0.1; 95%CI:-0.22, 0.01) decrease preventive behavior of Covid-19. Conclusion Almost two individuals of five participants developed COVID-19 anxiety and COVID-19 obsession. Being grade 11th and knowledge were negatively associated with anxiety while being female and being obsessed with COVID-19 were positively associated with anxiety. No variable was associated with obsession of Covid-19. Intervention is needed to reduce anxiety among females. Furthermore, perceived barrier, self-efficacy and cues to action were significant factors of preventive behaviour of Covid-19. Therefore, to increase preventive behaviour of Covid-19, information, education and communication and behavioural change communication should be targeted on reducing barriers and increasing motivations and confidences.

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