Self Efficacy
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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Amjad Iqbal ◽  
Iftikhar Ahmad ◽  
Khawaja Fawad Latif

PurposeThis study aims at ascertaining the relationship between servant leadership and employees’ organizational deviant behaviour in public sector organizations of Pakistan. Drawing on social cognitive and social exchange theories, this research also proposes to determine the mediating role of self-efficacy and trust in leader in this relationship.Design/methodology/approachUsing convenience sampling method, three-wave time-lagged data were collected from 204 employees working in secretariats of two federal ministries in Pakistan.FindingsThe results derived from partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis using SmartPLS 3.2.9 software revealed that servant leadership is not negatively related to employee organizational deviant behaviour. Although the findings indicate that servant leadership is positively related to employee self-efficacy and trust in leader, these factors do not mediate the relationship between servant leadership and organizational deviant behaviour.Practical implicationsEmpirical evidence of this research emphasizes the role of servant leadership in fostering employees’ trust and self-efficacy. Additionally, this research suggests that alongside servant leadership, a moral climate and fairness in organizational policies and decisions are also inevitable to prompt employees to feel obligated to reduce undesirable workplace behaviours, particularly in public sector organizations.Originality/valueThis is amongst the earlier studies that investigates the association between servant leadership and organizational deviant behaviour of public sector employees in a developing context and examines the mediating role of trust in leader and self-efficacy simultaneously. Being contradictory to the underlying theories, findings of this research open the debate on effectiveness of servant leadership in public sector organizations of developing countries and expose avenues for future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jeffrey D. Graham ◽  
Emily Bremer ◽  
Barbara Fenesi ◽  
John Cairney

Objective: Research supports the efficacy of acute, classroom-based, physical activity breaks on executive functioning in children. However, research pertaining to the effect of physical fitness on the acute physical activity—executive functioning relationship remains limited. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of classroom-based, teacher-delivered, physical activity breaks on executive functioning in 11–14-year-old children. We also investigated the potential moderating effects of both aerobic and musculoskeletal fitness on the acute physical activity—executive functioning relationship.Method: Participants (N = 116) completed pre- and post-test assessments of executive functioning (i.e., inhibition, switching, and updating) separated by a classroom-based physical activity break or sedentary classroom work. We manipulated the dose (i.e., length) and type of physical activity breaks. With regards to dose, participants in the experimental conditions engaged in 5-, 10-, or 20-min of physical activity whereas controls completed sedentary classroom math work at their desk. With regards to type, one experimental condition completed traditional physical activity breaks whereas the other experimental condition completed academic physical activity breaks (i.e., performed mental math and physical activity). Participants' mood, motivation, and self-efficacy were also assessed following the experimental manipulations.Results: Overall, executive function scores improved across each assessment following the physical activity breaks when compared to sedentary classroom work regardless of dose and type. Participants also reported more positive mood states, higher motivation to complete the executive function tests, and higher self-efficacy to perform the executive functions tests following the physical activity breaks. Single moderation analyses showed that low-moderate levels of aerobic fitness moderated the acute physical activity—executive functioning relationship. Additive moderation analysis showed, collectively, that both aerobic and musculoskeletal fitness moderated the acute physical activity—executive functioning relationship.Conclusion: Findings from the present study provide evidence for the acute effects of short (i.e., 5–20 min) classroom-based physical activity breaks on executive functioning and psychological states in children. Results also suggest levels of both aerobic and musculoskeletal fitness moderate these effects, however future research is needed to further elucidate this complex relationship.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
A.R.S. Ibn Ali ◽  
Wirawan Dony Dahana

PurposeThis paper aims to address how the status consumption tendency of consumers in emerging markets is negatively influenced by five individual traits: self-control, self-actualization, religiosity, future orientation and self-efficacy.Design/methodology/approachA conjoint experiment measured the importance of certain smartphone product attributes. A latent class regression analysis was then employed to estimate segment-level part-worths using conjoint data collected from 500 Bangladeshi consumers.FindingsThe results revealed three segments with members that differ in how they evaluate smartphone product attributes. Those susceptible to a product's brand name (i.e. status seekers) appear to have low self-control, are less religious and are more myopic.Research limitations/implicationsAn issue may exist with generalizability, as the analysis was conducted based on data collected in one country and for one product category. However, this study's framework provides direction for future researchers to better understand status consumption in emerging countries.Practical implicationsThe findings are useful for marketers selling status products to improve market segmentation and target their offerings more efficiently.Originality/valueThe originality of this paper is twofold. First, it investigates the influencing factors of status consumption that have not been addressed in the extant literature. Second, it is the first to use experimental data to measure segment-level status consumption accurately.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110376
Nuno Rodrigues ◽  
Teresa Rebelo

Drawing upon previous theorizing and empirical research efforts supporting the importance of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) as a key motivational antecedent of proactive forms of behaviour at work, including individual innovation, this paper reports the process of building and validating a Portuguese version of Parker’s RBSE scale. Data from two studies with independent samples of employees ( N = 103, N = 148) pertaining to an information technology company, showed that this version (RBSE-P) has, as expected, a unidimensional structure with a high level of factor structure similarity in both samples, as well as appropriate levels of internal consistency. Furthermore, evidence from the second sample ( N = 148) revealed that, in line with preliminary research, this construct shows validity to predict the distinctive proactive behaviour of individual innovation, evaluated by the employee’s corresponding direct supervisors. These results support the use of this scale for assessing RBSE in Portuguese-speaking work settings and the meaningful role of this construct for predicting this criterion, which is acknowledged as an important driver of organizational success and competitiveness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 134-144
Adhelia Rochmatika ◽  
Nur Eva ◽  
Farah Farida Tantiani

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anna K. Georg ◽  
Paul Schröder-Pfeifer ◽  
Manfred Cierpka ◽  
Svenja Taubner

Objective: Early regulatory disorders (ERD) in infancy are typically associated with high parenting stress (PS). Theoretical and empirical literature suggests a wide range of factors that may contribute to PS related to ERD. The aim of this study was to identify key predictors of maternal PS within a large predictor data set in a sample of N = 135 mothers of infants diagnosed with ERD.Methods: We used machine learning to identify relevant predictors. Maternal PS was assessed with the Parenting Stress Index. The multivariate dataset assessed cross-sectionally consisted of 464 self-reported and clinically rated variables covering mother-reported psychological distress, maternal self-efficacy, parental reflective functioning, socio-demographics, each parent's history of illness, recent significant life events, former miscarriage/abortion, pregnancy, obstetric history, infants' medical history, development, and social environment. Variables were drawn from behavioral diaries on regulatory symptoms and parental co-regulative behavior as well as a clinical interview which was utilized to diagnose ERD and to assess clinically rated regulatory symptoms, quality of parent–infant relationship, organic/biological and psychosocial risks, and social–emotional functioning.Results: The final prediction model identified 11 important variables summing up to the areas maternal self-efficacy, psychological distress (particularly depression and anger-hostility), infant regulatory symptoms (particularly duration of fussing/crying), and age-appropriate physical development. The RMSE (i.e., prediction accuracy) of the final model applied to the test set was 21.72 (R2 = 0.58).Conclusions: This study suggests that among behavioral, environmental, developmental, parent–infant relationship, and mental health variables, a mother's higher self-efficacy, psychological distress symptoms particularly depression and anger symptoms, symptoms in the child particularly fussing/crying symptoms, and age-inappropriate physical development are associated with higher maternal PS. With these factors identified, clinicians may more efficiently assess a mother's PS related to ERD in a low-risk help-seeking sample.

2021 ◽  
Gudrun Rohde ◽  
Sølvi Helseth ◽  
Hilde Timenes Mikkelsen ◽  
Siv Skarstein ◽  
Milada Cvancarova Småstuen ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFor many adults, their role as a parent is a vital part of their lives. This role is likely to be associated with a parent’s health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to explore the associations between gender, demographic and psychosocial variables, and HRQOL pain in parents of 14–15-year-old adolescents.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study that included 561 parents. Data on demographic, psychosocial variables and pain were collected using validated instruments. HRQOL was assessed using the RAND-36. Data were analysed using univariate and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses.ResultsFour hundred and thirty-six (78%) mothers and 125 (22%) fathers with a mean age of 45 (SD = 5) years were included. Eighty-one per cent were married/cohabiting, 74% worked full time, and 50% had university education of more than 4 years. Almost one-third reported daily or weekly pain, and more than half (58%) reported using pain analgesics during the previous 4 weeks. Mothers reported significantly lower scores on self-efficacy, self-esteem and for all RAND-36 domains, including the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) and experienced greater stress than fathers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that working part-time (beta = 0.40) or full time (beta = 0.52) (reference: not working) had the strongest positive effect on PCS. Absence from work for >10 days (beta = –0.24) (reference: no absence), short-term pain (beta = –0.14), chronic pain (beta = –0.37) (reference: no pain), and stress (beta= –0.10) had the strongest negative effects on PCS. High self-esteem (beta = 0.11) had the strongest positive effect, whereas stress (beta = –0.58) and absence from work for >10 days (beta = –0.11) (reference: no absence) had the strongest negative effects on MCS.ConclusionMothers reported significantly lower scores on self-efficacy, self-esteem, and HRQOL, and experienced greater stress than the fathers. A high proportion of parents reported pain. Pain, stress, and low work affiliation were strongly associated with decreased HRQOL in parents. We recommend that parents of adolescents should be provided guidance about coping with pain and stress, and facilitation of a strong work affiliation because these seem to be important to parents’ HRQOL.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Susanne Schwab ◽  
Andrea Kulmhofer-Bommer ◽  
Lisa Hoffmann ◽  
Janka Goldan

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