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2022 ◽  
Vol 642 ◽  
pp. 119920
Shuang Song ◽  
Liangwan Rong ◽  
Kejun Dong ◽  
Xuefei Liu ◽  
Pierre Le-Clech ◽  

Arvind Kumar ◽  
Swarup Sohan Gandhi ◽  
Ashok Gandhi ◽  
Trilochan Srivastav ◽  
Devendra Purohit

AbstractPosterior circulation aneurysms are difficult to treat, and if an incorporated artery is arising from the neck of aneurysm, management becomes much more challenging. Here, we are describing a novel technique used to treat a patient with a large, wide-necked left vertebral artery (VA)-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) junctional aneurysm. PICA seems to be arising from the aneurysm neck, but the aneurysm neck was not very clearly defined. So, we placed a second microcatheter into PICA, which not only allowed the coils to be placed in the aneurysm, without disrupting the flow through PICA but also helpful in assessing the aneurysmal occlusion. This technique allowed coils to be placed successfully without compromising flow through PICA.

Ellen Garven ◽  
Christopher B. Rodell ◽  
Kristen Shema ◽  
Krianthan Govender ◽  
Samantha E. Cassel ◽  

Despite advancements in procedures and patient care, mortality rates for neonatal recipients of the Norwood procedure, a palliation for single ventricle congenital malformations, remain high due to the use of a fixed-diameter blood shunt. In this study, a new geometrically tunable blood shunt was investigated to address limitations of the current treatment paradigm (e.g., Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt) by allowing for controlled modulation of blood flow through the shunt to accommodate physiological changes due to the patient’s growth. First, mathematical and computational cardiovascular models were established to investigate the hemodynamic requirements of growing neonatal patients with shunts and to inform design criteria for shunt diameter changes. Then, two stages of prototyping were performed to design, build and test responsive hydrogel systems that facilitate tuning of the shunt diameter by adjusting the hydrogel’s degree of crosslinking. We examined two mechanisms to drive crosslinking: infusion of chemical crosslinking agents and near-UV photoinitiation. The growth model showed that 15–18% increases in shunt diameter were required to accommodate growing patients’ increasing blood flow; similarly, the computational models demonstrated that blood flow magnitudes were in agreement with previous reports. These target levels of diameter increases were achieved experimentally with model hydrogel systems. We also verified that the photocrosslinkable hydrogel, composed of methacrylated dextran, was contact-nonhemolytic. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept feasibility and reflect the first steps in the development of this novel blood shunt. A tunable shunt design offers a new methodology to rebalance blood flow in this vulnerable patient population during growth and development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 101-106
Ernest Beinrohr ◽  
Stanislava Hlubikova ◽  
Jarka Lastincova

Flow through coulometry is used for analysis of wine samples for the determination of some heavy metals, sulphites, acidity and ethanol content. Low concentrations of heavy metals and sulphite contents are determined by making use of stripping chronopotentiometry. For the measurement of acid and ethanol content thin-layer coulometric titration is used.

2022 ◽  
Joern Loehken ◽  
Davood Yosefnejad ◽  
Liam McNelis ◽  
Bernd Fricke

Abstract Due to the increases in completion costs demand for production improvements, fracturing through double casing in upper reservoirs for mature wells and refracturing early stimulated wells to change the completion design, has become more and more popular. One of the most common technologies used to re-stimulate previously fracked wells, is to run a second, smaller casing or tubular inside of the existing and already perforated pipes of the completed well. The new inner and old outer casing are isolated from each other by a cement layer, which prevents any hydraulic communication between the pre-existing and new perforations, as well as between adjacent new perforations. For these smaller inner casing diameters, specially tailored and designed re-fracturing perforation systems are deployed, which can shoot casing entrance holes of very similar size through both casings, nearly independent of the phasing and still capable of creating tunnels reaching beyond the cement layer into the natural rock formation. Although discussing on the API RP-19B section VII test format has recently been initiated and many companies have started to test multiple casing scenarios and charge performance, not much is known about the complex flow through two radially aligned holes in dual casings. In the paper we will look in detail at the parameters which influence the flow, especially the Coefficient of Discharge of such a dual casing setup. We will evaluate how much the near wellbore pressure drop is affected by the hole's sizes in the first and second casing, respectively the difference between them and investigate how the cement layer is influenced by turbulences, which might build up in the annulus. The results will enhance the design and provide a better understanding of fracturing or refracturing through double casings for hydraulic fracturing specialists and both operation and services companies.

Shidi Liu ◽  
Tianyu Yang ◽  
Liang Zhang ◽  
Ming Tian ◽  
Yuming Dong

Abstract A robust and simple mid-infrared hollow-core anti-resonant fiber (ARF) based refractive index (RI) sensor with an intensity demodulation method is presented and analyzed for monitoring liquid analytes. The ARF allows liquid analytes to flow through its hollow area for detection. To obtain ideal sensing performance, an epsilon negative (ENG) material is introduced into the selected anti-resonant tube. With the high absorption of the ENG material, only one fundamental mode is available for detection and is sensitive to the RI variation of analytes. Moreover, the effects of structural parameters on the sensing performances are discussed and analyzed to further understand the mechanism and optimization. The final result shows that the ARF sensor can exhibit a high sensitivity of -372.58 dB/RIU at a fixed wavelength within a broad RI range from 1.33 to 1.45, which covers most liquid analytes. It is a promising candidate for chemical and environmental analysis. Additionally, it has the potential for deep research to feed diverse applications.

Michael Zelenski ◽  
Yuri Taran ◽  
Alina Korneeva ◽  
Fedor Sandalov ◽  
Nikolai Nekrylov

Volcanic fumaroles are openings in the earth's surface, where volcanic gases discharge to the atmosphere. Metallic and non-metallic elements contained in gases form specific mineral precipitates upon cooling. Although the presence of metals in fumarolic gases has long been known, their concentrations are generally low and difficult to measure directly. A laboratory model of a fumarole may resolve the situation if the complex gas composition could be accurately reproduced. Here we describe a new experimental approach that allows accurately simulating fumarolic gases in terms of their main components (H2O, CO2, S, HCl), as well as adding volatile metal compounds. Gas is generated inside a special flow-through reactor, at the outlet of which the elements contained in the gas form temperature-dependent mineral sequence inside the attached silica-glass tube. Using this installation, we obtained laboratory sublimates from reducing (H2S-rich) gases similar to natural ones in terms of mineral composition and mineral habits. Twenty-one phases have been identified in sublimates, among which are simple and complex chlorides, simple sulfides and six sulfosalts. Comparison of the sublimate deposition from H2O-rich gas at 1 bar with similar works performed in evacuated ampoules at low pressure showed that fumarolic gases behave like an ideal gas, in which molecules do not interact with each other, and reactive compounds in the gas serve in fact as an inert carrier of volatile metals species. Changing the composition of the gas at the outlet of the installation, its flow rate and temperature, we can observe the corresponding changes in mineral precipitates and in such a way study the factors affecting mineral formation on natural fumarolic fields.

Soil Systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Chad J. Penn ◽  
Mark R. Williams ◽  
James Camberato ◽  
Nicholas Wenos ◽  
Hope Wason

Soil phosphorus (P) solubility and kinetics partly control dissolved P losses to surface water and uptake by plants. While previous studies have focused on batch techniques for measuring soil P desorption kinetics, flow-through techniques are more realistic because they simulate P removal from the system, akin to runoff, leaching, and plant uptake. The objectives were to measure soil P desorption by a flow-through technique at two flow rates and several batch methods, and utilize both for understanding how flow rate impacts the thermodynamics and kinetics of soil P desorption. Desorption obeyed first-order kinetics in two different phases: an initial rapid desorption phase followed by a gradual release. Desorption was limited by equilibrium and the kinetics of physical processes as demonstrated by an interruption test. Dilution-promoted desorption occurred with increasing cumulative volume, which increased desorption rate via first-order kinetics. The batch tests that simulated cumulative solution volume and time of flow-through were similar to the flow-through results; however, the batch methods overestimated the desorption rates due to less limitations to diffusion. Fast flow rates desorbed less P, but at a greater speed than slow flow rates. The differences were due to contact time, cumulative time, and solution volume, which ultimately controlled the potential for chemical reactions to be realized through physical processes. The interaction between these processes will control the quantity and rate of desorption that buffer P in non-point drainage losses and plant uptake.

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