Flow Rates
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Author(s):  
Shurbhit Surage ◽  
◽  
M.P.S. Chawla ◽  

The relevance of electricity generation from renewable energy sources is growing every day in the current global energy environment. The scarcity of fossil fuels and the environmental risks connected with traditional power producing methods are the main reasons behind this. The major sources of non-conventional energy are wind and solar which can be harnessed easily. A new system design for hybrid photovoltaic and wind-power generation is introduced within this study. A Modified M.P.P.T. has been proposed to strengthen productivity of this system. The proposed approach employs the Incremental Conductance (IC) MPPT technique. Under varied climatic conditions (Solar irradiance & Temperature), IC is utilized to determine the optimum voltage output of a photo voltaic generator (P.V.G.) within the photo voltaic system (P.V.) structure. The Incremental Conductance is utilized to manage the converter’s technology having boosting function. The P.M.S.G. is used to determine the maximum voltage output for varied wind flow rates in wind turbine system. Simulations are conducted in Matlab2019b to test efficacy of the proposed MPPT. The proposed scheme’s effectiveness can be supported with simulation results.


Author(s):  
Gabriel G. Zimmermann ◽  
Samir P. Jasper ◽  
Daniel Savi ◽  
Leonardo L. Kmiecik ◽  
Lauro Strapasson Neto ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT The establishment of grain crops in Brazil is an important industrial process in the agricultural chain, requiring the correct deposition of granular fertilizer over the sowing furrow and more efficient, precise, and sustainable assessments in the operation, which can be achieved with the statistical process control. This study aimed to assess the effect of the angular velocity on different inclinations of the helical metering mechanism on the granular fertilizer deposition. An automated electronic bench was used to assess the deposition quality of granular fertilizers considering different angular velocities (1.11, 1.94, and 2.77 m s-1) and longitudinal and transverse inclinations (+15, +7.5, 0, −7.5, and −15°), with the helical doser by overflow. Flow data were collected and submitted to descriptive statistics and statistical process control. The metering mechanism showed expected variations, with acceptable performance under process control. The values of the flow rates of the granular fertilizer increased as velocity increased, standing out longitudinal inclinations of +7.5 and +15°, providing higher fertilizer depositions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hassan Tavakol-Davani ◽  
Michael Violante ◽  
Saeed Manshadi

Abstract In different areas across the U.S., there are utility poles and other critical infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding damage. The goal of this multidisciplinary research is to assess and minimize the probability of utility pole failure through conventional hydrological, hydrostatic, and geotechnical calculations embedded to a unique mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization framework. Once the flow rates that cause utility pole overturn are determined, the most cost-efficient subterranean pipe network configuration can be created that will allow for flood waters to be redirected from vulnerable infrastructure elements. The optimization framework was simulated using the Julia scientific programming language, for which the JuMP interface and Gurobi solver package were employed to solve a minimum cost network flow objective function given the numerous decision variables and constraints across the network. We implemented our optimization framework in three different watersheds across the U.S. These watersheds are located near Whittier, NC; Leadville, CO; and London, AR. The implementation of a minimum cost network flow optimization model within these watersheds produced results demonstrating that the necessary amount of flood waters could be conveyed away from utility poles to prevent failure by flooding.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 583
Author(s):  
Suleyman Emre Ak ◽  
Sertac Cadirci

In this study, the effect of suction flow control on a centrifugal compressor at operation and stall flow rates was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The compressor geometry was reconstructed from available open source profile data and the CFD analyses have been performed on this geometry using the appropriate mesh. To validate the CFD results, the compressor performance line was acquired and compared with the experimental results obtained at the design rotational speed. Then, suction flow control was employed at various suction slot positions with different suction flow rates to improve the performance of the compressor at operation and stall flow rates. As a result of the suction flow control trials, 0.85% increase in pressure ratio and 0.8% increase in adiabatic efficiency were achieved while the compressor was running at operation flow rate. The performance improvements corresponding to the stall flow rate of the compressor were 2.5% increase in pressure ratio and 2% increase in adiabatic efficiency.


Fluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Author(s):  
Tomáš Bodnár ◽  
Adélia Sequeira

This paper presents a numerical comparison of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluid flow using a generalized Oldroyd-B model and Johnson–Segalman model under various settings. Results for the standard shear-thinning generalization of Oldroyd-B model are used as a reference for comparison with those obtained for the same flow cases using Johnson–Segalman model that has specific adjustment of convected derivative to assure shear-thinning behavior. The modeling strategy is first briefly described, pointing out the main differences between the generalized Oldroyd-B model (using the Cross model for shear-thinning viscosity) and the Johnson–Segalman model operating in shear-thinning regime. Then, both models are used for blood flow simulation in an idealized stenosed axisymmetric vessel under different flow rates for various model parameters. The simulations are performed using an in-house numerical code based on finite-volume discretization. The obtained results are mutually compared and discussed in detail, focusing on the qualitative assessment of the most distinct flow field differences. It is shown that despite all models sharing the same asymptotic viscosities, the behavior of the Johnson–Segalman model can be (depending on flow regime) quite different from the predictions of the generalized Oldroyd-B model.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ki Hyun Nam

AbstractSerial crystallography (SX) enables the visualization of the time-resolved molecular dynamics of macromolecular structures at room temperature while minimizing radiation damage. In SX experiments, the delivery of a large number of crystals into an X-ray interaction point in a serial and stable manner is key. Sample delivery using viscous medium maintains the stable injection stream at low flow rates, markedly reducing sample consumption compared with that of a liquid jet injector and is widely applied in SX experiments with low repetition rates. As the sample properties and experimental environment can affect the stability of the injection stream of a viscous medium, it is important to develop sample delivery media with various characteristics to optimize the experimental environment. In this study, a beef tallow injection matrix possessing a higher melting temperature than previously reported fat-based shortening and lard media was introduced as a sample delivery medium and applied to SX. Beef tallow was prepared by heat treating fats from cattle, followed by the removal of soluble impurities from the extract by phase separation. Beef tallow exhibited a very stable injection stream at room temperature and a flow rate of < 10 nL/min. The room-temperature structures of lysozyme and glucose isomerase embedded in beef tallow were successfully determined at 1.55 and 1.60 Å, respectively. The background scattering of beef tallow was higher than that of previously reported fat-based shortening and lard media but negligible for data processing. In conclusion, the beef tallow matrix can be employed for sample delivery in SX experiments conducted at temperatures exceeding room temperature.


Hydrology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Author(s):  
Lavane Kim ◽  
Nguyen Truong Thanh ◽  
Pham Van Toan ◽  
Huynh Vuong Thu Minh ◽  
Pankaj Kumar

Because of its threat to the quality of freshwater resources and human health, arsenic (As) pollution is important to scientific communities and policymakers around the world. The Mekong Delta, Vietnam, is one hotspot of As pollution. Its risk assessment of different environmental components has been well documented; however, very few studies focus on As removal techniques. Considering this information gap, this study aimed to investigate the performance of an innovative and low-cost treatment system using Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) coated sand to remove As(III) from aqueous solution. Batch and column experiments were conducted at a laboratory scale in order to study removal kinetics and efficiency. Experimental results indicated that the adsorption isotherm of As(III) on FeOOH coated sand using Langmuir and Freundlich models have high regression factors of 0.987 and 0.991, respectively. The batch adsorption experiment revealed that contact time was approximately 8 h for rough saturation (kinetic test). The concentration of As(III) in effluents at flow rates of 0.6 L/h, 0.9 L/h, and 1.8 L/h ranged from 1.1 µg/L to 1.7 µg/L. Results from this study indicated that FeOOH coated sand columns were effective in removing As(III) from water, with a removal efficiency of 99.1%. Ultimately, FeOOH coated sand filtration could be a potential treatment system to reduce As(III) in the domestic water supply in remote areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.


Author(s):  
Ahmed Ramadhan Al-Obaidi ◽  
Ali Qubian

Abstract In this current study, the transient numerical calculations using CFD code are carried out under different outlet impeller diameters for the flow field within a centrifugal pump under single-phase and cavitation conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are carried out on all of these results in order to better understand the flow structure within a centrifugal pump. Also, the investigations using different outlet impeller diameters configurations relating to the static pressure, velocity magnitude, vapour volume fraction variations, as well as pressure fluctuations in both time and frequency domain at the impeller and volute of the pump are analysed. Velocity and static pressure variations of the pump under different outlet impeller diameters range (200, 210 and 220 mm) are investigated. Reliable model is developed and validated, at various pump operating conditions, to analyse the characteristics of pressure fluctuations in both time and frequency domain. Cavitation occurrence, under different outlet impeller diameters and flow rates, are detected and correlated, using a CFD model (volume fraction distributions). Based on the developed model’s findings, at the set operating conditions ranges, the distribution and impact (cavitation and head-wises) of both the pressure and velocity are analysed. The average pressure fluctuation in the volute for do = 210 mm is higher than for do = 200 mm by about 6.74%, also the maximum pressure fluctuation for do = 220 mm is higher than for do = 210 mm by around 7.4%. Furthermore, the maximum pressure fluctuation in the impeller for do = 210 mm is higher than for do = 200 mm by 12.48%, also for do = 220 mm is higher than for do = 210 mm by 10.8%. The developed CFD models are proved valuable tools in identifying and optimizing the pump performance and characterization. The head for when do = 220 mm is higher than for when do = 200 mm under both single-phase and cavitation conditions by around 14.13% and 14.69%. The maximum pressure fluctuation for do = 200 mm is lower than for do = 210 mm by 41.58%. Furthermore, the maximum pressure fluctuation at the impeller for do = 220 mm is higher than the two models. There is a small clearance between the impeller and the volute for this model, leading to the pressure fluctuation amplitudes being higher than the other above models.


2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andreas Wittke ◽  
Nikolaus Gussone ◽  
Dominik Derigs ◽  
Barbara M. A. Teichert

AbstractFluid flow and carbonate recrystallization rates of deep-sea sediments from eight locations in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific were determined by using δ44/40Ca values of pore water and corresponding sediments. The studied drill sites of IODP Exp. 320/321 are located along a transect of decreasing crustal age and reveal different characteristic pore water depth profiles. The younger sites show an overall isotopic equilibration with the sediment in the upper part of the sedimentary column. In the lower part, the δ44/40Ca of the pore water increases back to seawater-like values at the sediment/basalt interface, forming a bulge-shaped pore water profile. The magnitude of the δ44/40Ca pore water bulge decreases with increasing age of the oceanic crust and sediment cover, resulting in seawater-like δ44/40Ca values throughout the sedimentary column in the oldest Sites U1331 and U1332. These findings indicate a seawater-like fluid input from the underlying crust into the sediment. Thus, after sedimentation, carbonate recrystallization processes start to enrich the pore water in 40Ca, and after a time of carbonate recrystallization and cooling of oceanic crust, a flow of seawater-like fluid starts to move upwards through the sedimentary column, enriching the pore water with 44Ca. We established a carbonate recrystallization and fluid flow model to quantify these processes. Our determined carbonate recrystallization rates between 0.000013e(−t/15.5) and 0.00038e(−t/100.5) and fluid flow rates in the range of 0.42–19 m*Myr−1 indicate that the fluid flow within the investigated sites of IODP Exp. 320/321 depends on the sedimentary composition and location of the specific site, especially the proximity to a recharge or discharge site of a hydrothermal convection cell.


Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Author(s):  
Xiaohong Li ◽  
Junping Duan ◽  
Zeng Qu ◽  
Jiayun Wang ◽  
Miaomiao Ji ◽  
...  

Cell separation has become @important in biological and medical applications. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is widely used due to the advantages it offers, such as the lack of a requirement for biological markers and the fact that it involves no damage to cells or particles. This study aimed to report a novel approach combining 3D sidewall electrodes and contraction/expansion (CEA) structures to separate three kinds of particles with different sizes or dielectric properties continuously. The separation was achieved through the interaction between electrophoretic forces and inertia forces. The CEA channel was capable of sorting particles with different sizes due to inertial forces, and also enhanced the nonuniformity of the electric field. The 3D electrodes generated a non-uniform electric field at the same height as the channels, which increased the action range of the DEP force. Finite element simulations using the commercial software, COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4, were performed to determine the flow field distributions, electric field distributions, and particle trajectories. The separation experiments were assessed by separating 4 µm polystyrene (PS) particles from 20 µm PS particles at different flow rates by experiencing positive and negative DEP. Subsequently, the sorting performances of the 4 µm PS particles, 20 µm PS particles, and 4 µm silica particles with different solution conductivities were observed. Both the numerical simulations and the practical particle separation displayed high separating efficiency (separation of 4 µm PS particles, 94.2%; separation of 20 µm PS particles, 92.1%; separation of 4 µm Silica particles, 95.3%). The proposed approach is expected to open a new approach to cell sorting and separating.


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