Thin Layer
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2022 ◽  
Charalampos Papadopoulos ◽  
Eleftheria Spourita ◽  
Konstantinos Mimidis ◽  
George Kolios ◽  
Ioannis Tentes ◽  

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) constitutes a significant cause of deaths, liver transplantations and economic costs worldwide. Despite extended research, investigations on the role of erythrocytes are scarce. Red blood cells from experimental animals and human patients with NASH, present phosphatidylserine exposure which is then recognized by Kupffer cells. This event leads to erythrophagocytosis, and amplification of inflammation through iron disposition. In addition, it has been shown that erythrocytes from NASH patients release the chemokine MCP1, leading to increased TNF-α release from macrophages RAW 264.7. However, erythrophagocytosis can also be caused by reduced CD47 levels. In addition, increased MCP1 release could be either signal-induced, or caused by higher MCP1 levels on the erythrocyte membrane. Finally, erythrocyte efferocytosis could provide additional inflammatory metabolites. In this study, we measured the erythrocyte membrane levels of CD47 and MCP1 by ELISA, and cholesterol and sphingosine with thin-layer chromatography. 18 patients (8 men, 10 women aged 56.7+/-11.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (7 men, 7 women aged 39.3+/-15.5 years) participated in our study. The erythrocyte CD47 levels were decreased in the erythrocyte membranes of NASH patients (844+/-409 pg/ml) compared to healthy controls (2969+/-1936 pg/ml) with P(Healthy>NAFLD)=99.1%, while the levels of MCP1 were increased in NASH patients (389+/-255 pg/ml), compared to healthy controls (230+/-117 pg/ml) with P(Healthy<NAFLD)=88.9%. Moreover, in erythrocyte membranes there was a statistically significant accumulation of sphingosine and cholesterol in NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. Our results imply that erythrocytes release chemotactic (find me signals) MCP1, while containing reduced (do not eat me signals) CD47. These molecules can lead to erythrophagocytosis. Next, increased (goodbye signals) sphingosine and cholesterol could augment inflammation by metabolic reprogramming.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 270-279
Anup K Chakraborty ◽  
Harshita Tripathi ◽  
Sarita Karole ◽  
Kavita R Loksh

is a significant therapeutic plant has a place with family apocynaceae contains in excess of 70 distinct sorts of chemotherapeutic agents and alkaloids which help in treating different illnesses. For the most part, it is known as Vincarosea, Ammocallisrosea and Lochnerarosea. There are numerous or more than 400 alkaloids present in plant, which are used as flavor, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, fragrance, ingredients, food addictives, and pesticides. To develop a validated high performance thin layer chromatographic method for the analysis of leaves and flower extracts of Sample solutions were applied onto the plates with automatic TLC sampler Linomat V (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland) and were controlled by WinCATS software. Plates were developed in 10 x 10cm twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Muttenz, Switzerland). A CAMAG TLC scanner was used for scanning the TLC plates. Pre-coated silica gel aluminium plates 60F254. For vincristine, simultaneous estimation of vincristine was performed by HPTLC on a silica gel plate using toluene-methanol-diethylamine (8.75: 0.75: 0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The Rf value was found to be 0.76 for flower and 0.80 for leaves at 250 nm which shows the presence of vincristin in . In this research paper, a validated HPTLC Method has been developed for the analysis of leaves and flower extracts

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Dong Hyun Kim ◽  
Eun-Mi Kim ◽  
Gi-Seok Heo ◽  
Dong Wook Lee ◽  
Jin Young Oh ◽  

Erlend Sørmo ◽  
Ludovica Silvani ◽  
Hans Fredrik Veiteberg Braaten ◽  
Tina Bryntesen ◽  
Espen Eek ◽  

Abstract Purpose As the formation of toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg) in Hg-contaminated sediments is of great concern worldwide, suitable remediation options are needed. Activated carbon (AC) amendment is a contested alternative due to uncertainties surrounding sorption efficiency and its potential role in aiding MeHg formation. The purpose of this study was therefore to demonstrate AC performance under favourable conditions for Hg-methylation and to further understand the role AC plays in the methylation process. Materials and methods Mercury-contaminated sediment (57.1 mg kg−1) was sampled from the Gunneklev fjord, a site known as the most heavily contaminated fjord in Norway. In a laboratory experiment, lignite AC (A-AC, 5%) or activated biochar (A-BC, 5%) along with dried algae biomass, serving as an excess source of easily degradable organic matter (OM) and sulphate, were added to sediment samples that were kept anoxic and dark over a period of 12 months. Results and discussion The amount of MeHg in sediment and porewater of the amended samples were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and compared to an unamended control. A net increase of MeHg in the sediment was observed in both control and amended samples, but contrary to expectations, sediment MeHg was 5 and 3 times higher in the A-AC and A-BC treatments, respectively, relative to the control after 12 months. As the stimulation of Hg-methylation could not be attributed to the sorbents supplying more available OM or sulphate for dissimilatory sulphate reduction, it is speculated that the sorbents rather aid this process through shuttling of electrons between the substrates involved. Meanwhile, the A-AC and A-BC amendments strongly reduced the available MeHg-concentration in porewater (by 87% for A-AC and by 93% for A-BC after 12 months), confirming that AC sorbents can be used to effectively limit the transport of MeHg from sediments. Conclusion When considering remediation of OM-rich Hg-contaminated sediments with AC, caution is thus warranted, as the overall effect of reducing MeHg-transport out of the sediment could partly be offset by an increased fraction of MeHg in the sediment. Thin-layer capping with AC might therefore be preferable to complete mixing of AC and sediment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 101-106
Ernest Beinrohr ◽  
Stanislava Hlubikova ◽  
Jarka Lastincova

Flow through coulometry is used for analysis of wine samples for the determination of some heavy metals, sulphites, acidity and ethanol content. Low concentrations of heavy metals and sulphite contents are determined by making use of stripping chronopotentiometry. For the measurement of acid and ethanol content thin-layer coulometric titration is used.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 514
Zhonghuan Su ◽  
Longfu Luo ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Zhongxiang Li ◽  
Hu Luo ◽  

The FDS (Frequency-domain Dielectric Spectroscopy) of oil-immersed insulation paper, and semi-conductive paper with different moisture content, has been measured. The data measured are fitted as a function of frequency and moisture content using the amendatory Cole–Cole model utilizing the least square technique. Then, the broadband MTL model of the insulation system of IOCT (Inverted-type Oil-immersed Current Transformer) is established considering the capacitive electrodes thin layer, and the distribution parameters consider the moisture and frequency dependence. A new method for VFTO (Very Fast Transient Overvoltage) distribution calculation of insulation systems is proposed.

2022 ◽  
Kyohei Fukuda ◽  
Mie Yoshida ◽  
Kensuke Noto ◽  
Kouichi Kitabayashi ◽  
Shinjirou Katsushima ◽  

Abstract A prototype virus sampler using electrostatic precipitation has been developed to investigate aerosol infection by SARS-CoV-2. The sampler consists of a discharge electrode placed inside a vial, and a thin layer of viral lysis buffer at the bottom, working as a collection electrode. The sampler was operated with the sampling air flow rate of 40 L/min. Collection efficiency of the sampler is about 80% for 25nm to 5.0µm diameter particles. We sampled the air of a food court of a commercial facility, a connecting corridor of a clouded train station, and two office rooms (A and B) in September 2021, just after the 5th peak of COVID-19 in Japan. The analysis using a RT-qPCR detected the virus RNA in the air of the office A, B and the food court. Estimated concentration of the virus in the air determined by calibration curve was 2.0 x 102, 7.8 x 102, and 0.6 - 2.4 x 102 copies/m3, in the office A, B, and the food court, respectively. These results indicate that the sampler using electrostatic precipitation can detect SARS-CoV-2 in indoor air. It could be developed as a risk assessment method for aerosol infection.

Wenyuan Zhang ◽  
Haojun Xu ◽  
Binbin Pei ◽  
Xiaolong Wei ◽  
Pei Feng ◽  

Abstract This work proposes a new plasma super-phase gradient metasurfaces (PS-PGMs) structure, owing to the limitations of the thin-layer plasma for electromagnetic wave attenuation. Based on the cross-shaped surface unit configuration, we have designed the X-band absorbing structure through the dispersion control method. By setting up the Drude dispersion model in the computer simulation technology, the designed phase gradient metasurfaces structure is superposed over the plasma, and the PS-PGMs structure is constructed. The electromagnetic scattering characteristics of the new structure have been simulated, and the reflectance measurement has been carried out to verify the absorbing effect. The results demonstrate that the attenuation effect of the new structure is superior to that of the pure plasma structure, which invokes an improved attenuation effect from the thin layer plasma, thus enhancing the feasibility of applying the plasma stealth technology to the local stealth of the strong scattering part of a combat aircraft.

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