Sodium fluoride (NaF) is widely used in clinical dentistry. However, the administration of high or low concentrations of NaF has various functions in different tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of the different effects of NaF will help to optimize its use in clinical applications. Studies of NaF and epithelial cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and periodontal cells have suggested the significant roles of fluoride treatment. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the biphasic functions of NaF that are related to both soft and hard periodontal tissues, multiple diseases, and clinical dentistry.
Cancer is a cataclysmic disease that affects not only the target organ, but also the whole body. Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) have recently emerged as a better option for the treatment of this deadly disease. Accordingly, the present work describes a means to control the growth of cancer cells by using colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) processed via homemade solutions and the characterization of these materials. The AgNPs may become an instantaneous solution for the treatment of these deadly diseases and to minimize or remove these problems. The AgNPs exhibit excellent control of the growth rate of human liver (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, even at a very low concentrations. The cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells were dose dependent (2–200 μg/mL), as evaluated using MTT and NRU assays. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased by 136% and 142% in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells treated with AgNPs, respectively. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data for both cell types (HepG2 and MCF-7) after exposure to AgNPs showed up- and downregulation of the expression of apoptotic (p53, Bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (BCl2) genes; moreover, their roles were described. This work shows that NPs were successfully prepared and controlled the growth of both types of cancer cells.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to intensify pain in various ways, so perturbing pertinent effects without negating its essential influences on neuronal functions could help the search for much-needed analgesics. Towards this goal, cultured neurons from neonatal rat trigeminal ganglia—a locus for craniofacial sensory nerves—were used to examine how NGF affects the Ca2+-dependent release of a pain mediator, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), that is triggered by activating a key signal transducer, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) with capsaicin (CAP). Measurements utilised neurons fed with or deprived of NGF for 2 days. Acute re-introduction of NGF induced Ca2+-dependent CGRP exocytosis that was inhibited by botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) or a chimera of/E and/A (/EA), which truncated SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein with Mr = 25 k) at distinct sites. NGF additionally caused a Ca2+-independent enhancement of the neuropeptide release evoked by low concentrations (<100 nM) of CAP, but only marginally increased the peak response to ≥100 nM. Notably, BoNT/A inhibited CGRP exocytosis evoked by low but not high CAP concentrations, whereas/EA effectively reduced responses up to 1 µM CAP and inhibited to a greater extent its enhancement by NGF. In addition to establishing that sensitisation of sensory neurons to CAP by NGF is dependent on SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, insights were gleaned into the differential ability of two regions in the C-terminus of SNAP-25 (181–197 and 198–206) to support CAP-evoked Ca2+-dependent exocytosis at different intensities of stimulation.
Recently, as air pollution and particulate matter worsen, the importance of a platform that can monitor the air environment is emerging. Especially, among air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas that can not only generate secondary particulate matter, but can also derive numerous toxic gases. To detect such NO2 gas at low concentration, we fabricated a GNWs/NiO-WO3/GNWs heterostructure-based gas sensor using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) and sputter, and we confirmed the NO2 detection characteristics between 10 and 50 ppm at room temperature. The morphology and carbon lattice characteristics of the sensing layer were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. In the gas detection measurement, the resistance negative change according to the NO2 gas concentration was recorded. Moreover, it reacted even at low concentrations such as 5–7 ppm, and showed excellent recovery characteristics of more than 98%. Furthermore, it also showed a change in which the reactivity decreased with respect to humidity of 33% and 66%.
(1) Background: Human aquaporin-9 (AQP9) conducts several small uncharged metabolites, such as glycerol, urea, and lactic acid. Certain brain tumors were shown to upregulate AQP9 expression, and the putative increase in lactic acid permeability was assigned to severity. (2) Methods: We expressed AQP9 and human monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in yeast to determine the uptake rates and accumulation of radiolabeled l-lactate/l-lactic acid in different external pH conditions. (3) Results: The AQP9-mediated uptake of l-lactic acid was slow compared to MCT1 at neutral and slightly acidic pH, due to low concentrations of the neutral substrate species. At a pH corresponding to the pKa of l-lactic acid, uptake via AQP9 was faster than via MCT1. Substrate accumulation was fundamentally different between AQP9 and MCT1. With MCT1, an equilibrium was reached, at which the intracellular and extracellular l-lactate/H+ concentrations were balanced. Uptake via AQP9 was linear, theoretically yielding orders of magnitude of higher substrate accumulation than MCT1. (4) Conclusions: The selectivity of AQP9 for neutral l-lactic acid establishes an ion trap for l-lactate after dissociation. This may be physiologically relevant if the transmembrane proton gradient is steep, and AQP9 acts as the sole uptake path on at least one side of a polarized cell.
We analyzed, for the first time, the major components and biological properties of the venom of Vespa bicolor, a wasp from South China. Using HPLC and SDS-PAGE, combined with LC–MS/MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR data to analyze V. bicolor venom (VBV), we found that VBV contains three proteins (hyaluronidase A, phospholipase A1 (two isoforms), and antigen 5 protein) with allergenic activity, two unreported proteins (proteins 5 and 6), and two active substances with large quantities (mastoparan-like peptide 12a (Vb-MLP 12a), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)). In addition, the antimicrobial activity of VBV was determined, and results showed that it had a significant effect against anaerobic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration for Propionibacterium acnes were 12.5 µg/mL. Unsurprisingly, VBV had strong antioxidant activity because of the abundance of 5-HT. Contrary to other Vespa venom, VBV showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, even at low concentrations (1 µg/mL), and we found that Vb-MLP 12a showed pro-inflammatory activity by promoting the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Cytotoxicity studies showed that VBV had similar antiproliferative effects against all tested tumor cell lines (HepG2, Hela, MCF-7, A549, and SASJ-1), with HepG2 being the most susceptible. Overall, this study on VBV has high clinical importance and promotes the development of Vespa bicolor resources.
The use of gibberellic acid as a stimulator of microalgae growth has beensubstantiatedexperimentally.This research aimed to assess the effect of exposure to a wide range of gibberellic acid concentrations on the growth dynamics ofthe microalgaTetraselmissuecicain an enrichment culture. The duration of the experiments was 14 days. It has been shown that gibberellic acid,atconcentrations of 0.39–3.20× 10−8M, stimulates algaegrowth. In this research, the exposure to gibberellic acid at concentrations of 0.39–3.20 × 10−8M was accompanied by a variation in the pattern of growth curves: the maximum number of cells was recorded on day seven of the experiment. A higher concentration of the phytohormone (3.84 × 10−8М) inhibited the increase inculture density. The growth of theT. suecicaculture in the control group was 332%;the growth of the culture exposed to gibberellic acid at a concentration of 0.39 × 10−8M was1136%. The values of the specific growth rate ofT. suecicawere estimated for different periods of cultivation. On day14 of the experiment, the biochemical composition of microalgae biomass was analyzed.According to the results, gibberellic acid stimulated the accumulation of carbohydrates, proteins, and chlorophyll. Nevertheless, the phytohormone had no effect on lipidaccumulation. An assumption was made thatexposure to low concentrations of phytohormone stimulates the growth of microalgae by reducing the lag phase of growth.
Keywords: gibberellic acid, microalga, cultivation, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins
Flow through coulometry is used for analysis of wine samples for the determination of some heavy metals, sulphites, acidity and ethanol content. Low concentrations of heavy metals and sulphite contents are determined by making use of stripping chronopotentiometry. For the measurement of acid and ethanol content thin-layer coulometric titration is used.
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) interact with amine compounds called “trace amines” which are present in tissues at low concentrations. Recently, TAARs expression in neoplastic tumors was reported. In this study, TAARs expression was analyzed in public RNAseq datasets in nevi and melanoma samples and compared to the expression of dopamine receptors (DRDs) that are known to be involved in melanoma pathogenesis. It was found that all DRDs and TAARs are expressed in nevi at comparable levels. Differential expression analysis demonstrated the drastic decrease of TAAR1, TAAR2, TAAR5, TAAR6, and TAAR8 expression in melanomas compared to benign nevi with only TAAR6, TAAR8, and TAAR9 remaining detectable in malignant tumors. No association of TAARs expression levels and melanoma clinicopathological characteristics was observed. TAARs co-expressed genes in melanoma and nevi were selected by correlation values for comparative pathway enrichment analysis between malignant and benign neoplasia. It was found that coexpression of TAARs with genes inquired in neurotransmitter signaling is lost in melanoma, and tumor-specific association of TAAR6 expression with the mTOR pathway and inflammatory signaling is observed. It is not excluded that TAARs may have certain functions in melanoma pathogenesis, the significance of which to tumor progression is yet to be understood.