exercise testing
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Kathrin Rottermann ◽  
Annika Weigelt ◽  
Tim Stäbler ◽  
Benedikt Ehrlich ◽  
Sven Dittrich ◽  

Abstract Purpose Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in preschoolers (4–6 years) represents a challenge. Most studies investigating CPET have been limited to older children (> 8 year). However, knowledge of the performance of small children is essential for evaluating their cardiorespiratory fitness. This study strives to compare a modified Bruce protocol with a new age-appropriate incremental CPET during natural movement running outdoors, using a mobile device. Methods A group of 22 4–6-year-old healthy children was tested indoor on a treadmill (TM) using the modified Bruce protocol. The results were compared with a self-paced incremental running test, using a mobile CPET device in an outdoor park. The speeds were described as (1) slow walking, (2) slow running, (3) regular running, and (4) running with full speed as long as possible. Results Mean exercise time outdoors (6,57 min) was significantly shorter than on the treadmill (11,20 min), $$\dot{V}{O}_{2peak}$$ V ˙ O 2 p e a k (51.1 ml/min/kg vs. 40.1 ml/min/kg), RER (1.1 vs. 0.98) and important CPET parameters such as $$\dot{V}E$$ V ˙ E max, O2pulse, heart rate and breath rate were significantly higher outdoors. The submaximal parameter OUES was comparable between both the tests. Conclusions Testing very young children with a mobile device is a new alternative to treadmill testing. With a significantly shorter test duration, significantly higher values for almost all cardiopulmonary variables can be achieved without losing the ability to determine VT1 and VT2. It avoids common treadmill problems and allows for individualized exercise testing. The aim is to standardize exercise times with individual protocols instead of standardizing protocols with individual exercise times, allowing for better comparability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Benedetta Leonardi ◽  
Federica Gentili ◽  
Marco Alfonso Perrone ◽  
Fabrizio Sollazzo ◽  
Lucia Cocomello ◽  

Patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) typically report having preserved subjective exercise tolerance. Chronic pulmonary regurgitation (PR) with varying degrees of right ventricular (RV) dilation as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prevalent in rToF and may contribute to clinical compromise. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides an objective assessment of functional capacity, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) can provide additional data on physical activity (PA) achieved. Our aim was to assess the association between CPET values, IPAQ measures, and MRI parameters. All rToF patients who had both an MRI and CPET performed within one year between March 2019 and June 2021 were selected. Clinical data were extracted from electronic records (including demographic, surgical history, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, QRS duration, arrhythmia, MRI parameters, and CPET data). PA level, based on the IPAQ, was assessed at the time of CPET. Eighty-four patients (22.8 ± 8.4 years) showed a reduction in exercise capacity (median peak VO2 30 mL/kg/min (range 25–33); median percent predicted peak VO2 68% (range 61–78)). Peak VO2, correlated with biventricular stroke volumes (RVSV: β = 6.11 (95%CI, 2.38 to 9.85), p = 0.002; LVSV: β = 15.69 (95% CI 10.16 to 21.21), p < 0.0001) and LVEDVi (β = 8.74 (95%CI, 0.66 to 16.83), p = 0.04) on multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, and PA level. Other parameters which correlated with stroke volumes included oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) (RVSV: β = 6.88 (95%CI, 1.93 to 11.84), p = 0.008; LVSV: β = 17.86 (95% CI 10.31 to 25.42), p < 0.0001) and peak O2 pulse (RVSV: β = 0.03 (95%CI, 0.01 to 0.05), p = 0.007; LVSV: β = 0.08 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.11), p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender, PA level correlated significantly with peak VO2/kg (β = 0.02, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.04; p = 0.019). We observed a reduction in objective exercise tolerance in rToF patients. Biventricular stroke volumes and LVEDVi were associated with peak VO2 irrespective of RV size. OUES and peak O2 pulse were also associated with biventricular stroke volumes. While PA level was associated with peak VO2, the incremental value of this parameter should be the focus of future studies.

Natalie S. Shwaish ◽  
Lindsey Malloy-Walton ◽  
Keith Feldman ◽  
Kelli M. Teson ◽  
Jessica S. Watson ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Thomas Couck ◽  
Roselien Buys ◽  
Béatrice Santens ◽  
Pieter De Meester ◽  
Kaatje Goetschalckx ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-110
Shubhangi Mukund ◽  
Dr. Reshma Kolase (PT)

Background: Oxygen saturation is the fraction of oxygen saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin in blood. Normal oxygen saturation level in humans are 95-100 percent.  Breathlessness is an unpleasant sensation of rapid or difficult breathing. The reason behind the subject experiencing breathlessness is that the body demands more oxygen than it supplies. Thus this study is conducted to Evaluate Recovery of Oxygen saturation and Rate of perceived exertion in different body positions after submaximal exercise testing in normal healthy individuals.  Methodology: It was Pre and Post Study Design with 6 months duration including 40 healthy students recruited by purposive sampling method. The outcome measure was Recovery of Oxygen saturation and rate of perceived exertion. Result – Using the Paired t test, this shows that fastest recovery of oxygen saturation occurs in prone position that is within 1 min (99±0.96) than supine within 3 min (99±0) than upright sitting within 3 min (99±0) and fastest recovery of rate of perceived exertion occurs in prone position that is within 1 min (0.825±0.99) than supine within 3 min (0±0) than upright sitting within 3 min (0±0). Conclusion - From the present study we evaluate the Recovery of oxygen saturation and RPE in supine, prone, upright sitting position and we found that the fastest recovery of oxygen saturation and Rate of perceived exertion occurs in prone position than supine and upright sitting position after submaximal exercise testing in normal healthy individual.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 98 (1 Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. S8.1-S8
Mohammad Mortazavi ◽  
Katelyn Paulsen ◽  
Tyler R. Marx ◽  
Monica Pita Other ◽  
Luke Muratalla Maes, Other ◽  

ObjectiveAnalyze the utility of a 5-step exertional rehab protocol (ERP) that included High Intensity Interval Multi-Directional Movement (HIIT-MD) or step 5. We assessed the incidence and etiologies of exercise intolerance (EI) during Step 5 in concussed patients who tolerated maximal linear exertion.BackgroundExertional testing can be used to determine appropriate levels of exercise tolerance (ET) in concussed patients. Traditionally linear modalities have been used to determine max ET prior to clearance. HIIT-MD protocols can be the next appropriate step to bridge clearance for more dynamic activities.Design/MethodsRetrospective chart review included 130 step 5 trials for EI; of those, 72 had pre/postexercise King Devick (KD) and force plate (FP) testing. Patients were 10–59 years old and clinic visits occurred 2019–2020. EI rate was recorded and failure reason was documented by our clinic's concussion specialist. The difference between pre/post exercise KD and FP was investigated.ResultsOf 130 step 5 trials, 21.54% failed due to EI. Reason for EI included the onset of symptoms (82.1%), followed by signs of dysautonomia (39.3%). Symptoms and dysautonomia combined were noted in 35.7% of those with EI. Symptoms appeared in combination with another marker 69.6% of the time. The average change in KD times pre/post exercise testing was +2.52 seconds longer in the EI group compared to −2.45 seconds shorter in the ET group (p = 0.62). The EI group demonstrated an average change of 0.36 deg/sec sway velocity increase after exercise compared to 0.13 deg/sec in the ET group (p = 0.93).ConclusionsThere is evidence for the utility of a HITT-MD protocol for dynamic exercise/sports clearance. Exercise testing progression and concussion clearance should include a dynamic HITT-MD protocol to ascertain no late phase dynamic EI. Dysautonomia and/or vestibulocular aggravation may be contributors to late phase EI. If EI exists, identifying and targeting underlying causes can aid optimal recovery.

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