Multivariate Analysis
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Pathobiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Mohamed Gijon ◽  
Rachael L. Metheringham ◽  
Michael S. Toss ◽  
Samantha J. Paston ◽  
Lindy G. Durrant

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Protein arginine deiminases (PADIs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the post-translational modification of proteins. Association between PADI expression and clinicopathology, protein expression, and outcome was determined. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> PADI2 and PADI4 expression was assessed immunohistochemically in a cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. <b><i>Results:</i></b> CRC tissues expressed variable levels of PADI2 which was mainly localised in the cytoplasm and correlated with patient survival (<i>p</i> = 0.005); high expression increased survival time from 43.5 to 67.6 months. Expression of cytoplasmic PADI2 correlated with the expression of nuclear β catenin, PADI4, and alpha-enolase. In contrast, expression of nuclear PADI2 correlated with a decrease in survival (<i>p</i> = 0.010), with high expression decreasing survival from 76.4 to 42.9 months. CRC tissues expressed variable levels of PADI4 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Expression of cytoplasmic PADI4 correlated with survival (<i>p</i> = 0.001) with high expression increasing survival time from 48.1 to 71.8 months. Expression of cytoplasmic PADI4 correlated with expression of nuclear β catenin, alpha-enolase (<i>p</i> ≤ 0.0001, <i>p</i> = 0.002), and the apoptotic related protein, Bcl-2. Expression of nuclear PADI4 also correlated with survival (<i>p</i> = 0.011), with high expression of nuclear PADI4 increasing survival time from 55.4 to 74 months. Expression of nuclear PADI4 correlated with p53, alpha-enolase, and Bcl-2. Multivariate analysis showed that TNM stage, cytoplasmic PADI2, and PADI4 remained independent prognostic factors in CRC. Both PADI2 and PADI4 are good prognostic factors in CRC. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> High expression of cytoplasmic PADI2, PADI4, and nuclear PADI4 were associated with an increase in overall survival.

2021 ◽  
Meritxell Gracia ◽  
Cristian de Guirior ◽  
Marta Valdés-Bango ◽  
Mariona Rius ◽  
Cristina Ros ◽  

Abstract Background Deep endometriosis (DE) occurs in 15–30% of patients with endometriosis and is associated with concomitant adenomyosis in around 49% of cases. There are no data about the effect of the presence of adenomyosis in terms of surgical outcomes and complications. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of adenomyosis on surgical complications in women with deep endometriosis undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Methods A retrospective cohort study including women referred to the endometriosis unit of a referral teaching hospital. Two expert sonographers preoperatively diagnosed DE and adenomyosis. DE was defined according to the criteria of the International Deep Endometriosis Analysis group. Adenomyosis was considered when 3 or more ultrasound criteria of the Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment group were present. Demographical variables, current medical treatment, symptoms, DE location, surgical time, hospital stay and difference in pre and post hemoglobin levels were collected. The Clavien-Dindo classification was used to assess surgical complications, and multivariate analysis was performed to compare patients with and without adenomyosis. Results 157 DE patients were included into the study; 77 (49.05%) had adenomyosis according to transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and were classified in the A group, and 80 (50.95%) had no adenomyosis and were classified in the noA group. Adenomyosis was associated with a higher rate of surgical complications: 33.76% (A group) vs. 12.5% (noA group) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed a 4.56-fold increased risk of presenting complications in women with adenomyosis (CI: 1.9–11.3; p = 0.001) independently of undergoing hysterectomy. There was a statistically significant association between the number of criteria of adenomyosis present in each patient and the proportion of patients presenting surgical complications (p < 0.001). Conclusions Adenomyosis increases the risk of presenting complications in DE surgery after controlling for demographic, clinical and surgical factors and should be considered an independent preoperative risk factor of surgical complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Suskhan Djusad ◽  
Yuditiya Purwosunu ◽  
Fadil Hidayat

Background. Perineal tears are one of the most common complications of vaginal delivery. Severe perineal tears can cause various morbidities. There are many factors that affect the occurrence of perineal tears. One of the major factors related to the occurrence of perineal tears is the length of the perineal body. However, until now, no research in Indonesia has concluded that the length of perineal body can predict the perineal tears. Objective. To find the relationship between perineal body length and perineal tears, so it can provide a reference on the use of perineal body length to predict severe perineal tears in vaginal delivery with episiotomy. Methods. This nested case-control study was conducted at RSUD Tangerang and RSUD Karawang in Indonesia from February to September 2017. A total of 126 primigravida patients participated in the study consecutively. The length of the perineal body was then measured and followed until the start of the second stage of labor. Afterwards, the perineal length and degree of perineal tears were assessed using unpaired T-test for bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and scoring test to predict the occurrence of third- and fourth-degree of perineal tears with power calculation (β) 80% and Zβ 0.842. Results. There was a significant difference in mean length of the perineal body between the group with first- and second-degree perineal tears and the group with third- and fourth-degree perineal tears ( p < 0.001 ). From the multivariate analysis, adjusted OR was 5.26 (95% CI 1.52–18.17). Score test was performed to predict the occurrence of third- and fourth-grade perineal tears. Perineal body length and head circumference could be used as predicting factors of perineal tears. Perineum length ≤ 3.0 cm and head circumference ≥ 33.5 cm posed a risk of perineal tears of third and fourth degrees (70.52%). Conclusion. The length of the perineal body has a good ability to predict the occurrence of perineal tears.

Miguel Antonio Mascarúa Alcázar ◽  
José Rubén Velázquez Vargas ◽  
Evelin Amador Mendoza ◽  
René Alejandro González Báez

El presente estudio urga sobre el potencial de la Mypes ante la industria 4.0, en el municipio de Xicotepec de Juárez, México, en donde se aplicó una encuesta a 393 microempresarios y se les preguntó acerca de sus percepciones sobre el gasto en inversión como un esfuerzo para superar la fragmentación de la industria por economías de escala en tecnología y metodología de administración del negocio, mediante el análisis multivariado de sus respuestas. Se demuestra que en el municipio existen importantes esfuerzos por parte de los negocios establecidos, mientras que aquello que no cuentan con registro, tienen retos desafiantes para el corto plazo. AbstractThis study discusses MSE's potential in response to industry 4.0, in the municipality of Xicotepec de Juarez, where a survey was applied to 393 micro-enterprises. Questions asking about their perception of investment expenditures as a means of overcoming industrial fragmentation due to technical economies of scale and the administrative methodology of their company through a multivariate analysis of the questions given. This research proves that there exist important efforts on behalf of registered businesses, while those businesses without registration face daunting short-term challenge.

Stroke ◽  
2021 ◽  
Joshua D. Burks ◽  
Stephanie H. Chen ◽  
Evan M. Luther ◽  
Eyad Almallouhi ◽  
Sami Al Kasab ◽  

Background and Purpose: Epidemiological studies have shown racial and ethnic minorities to have higher stroke risk and worse outcomes than non-Hispanic Whites. In this cohort study, we analyzed the STAR (Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry) database, a multi-institutional database of patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy for acute large vessel occlusion stroke to determine the relationship between mechanical thrombectomy outcomes and race. Methods: Patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy between January 2017 and May 2020 were analyzed. Data included baseline characteristics, vascular risk factors, complications, and long-term outcomes. Functional outcomes were assessed with respect to Hispanic status delineated as non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), or Hispanic patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with unfavorable outcome or modified Rankin Scale ≥3 at 90 days. Results: Records of 2115 patients from the registry were analyzed. Median age of Hispanic patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy was 60 years (72–84), compared with 63 years (54–74) for NHB, and 71 years (60–80) for NHW patients ( P <0.001). Hispanic patients had a higher incidence of diabetes (41%; P <0.001) and hypertension (82%; P <0.001) compared with NHW and NHB patients. Median procedure time was shorter in Hispanics (36 minutes) compared to NHB (39 minutes) and NHW (44 minutes) patients ( P <0.001). In multivariate analysis, Hispanic patients were less likely to have favorable outcome (odds ratio, 0.502 [95% CI, 0.263–0.959]), controlling for other significant predictors (age, admission National Institutes Health Stroke Scale, onset to groin time, number of attempts, procedure time). Conclusions: Hispanic patients are less likely to have favorable outcome at 90 days following mechanical thrombectomy compared to NHW or NHB patients. Further prospective studies are required to validate our findings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 350-356
Helena Štimac ◽  
Ivan Kelić ◽  
Karla Bilandžić

The behavior of e-customers is quite unpredictable, which raises additional questions about this topic. The purpose of the paper is to conduct research on e-customers, understand the impact of marketing actions on e-customer behavior and understand the unpredictability of e-customers. Research was conducted on the Mlinar web shop that sells cakes. 284 respondents/buyers had the opportunity to solve questionnaires about behavior after purchase and consumption of product. Different methods have been used in the analysis - descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis (reliability analysis, correlation analysis and linear regression) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that most examinees were satisfied with online shopping on the Mlinar web shop and that they are impulsive when online shopping. Saving time is the main reason to buy on a web shop. Research proved that variables such as firm reputation/perceived value, e-satisfaction and online services positively affect the creation of e-loyalty in their users.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tzong-Ru Lee ◽  
Ku-Ho Lin ◽  
Chang-Hsiung Chen ◽  
Carmen Otero-Neira ◽  
Göran Svensson

PurposeThe purpose of the paper is to test and compare a framework of firms' business sustainability endeavours with internal and external stakeholders in an oriental business context and to verify the validity and reliability of a stakeholder framework through time and across oriental and occidental business contexts.Design/methodology/approachQuantitative approach based on a questionnaire survey in corporate Taiwan with a response rate of 68.5%. Multivariate analysis is undertaken to uncover the measurement properties of a stakeholder framework.FindingsA framework of firms' business sustainability endeavours with internal and external stakeholders appears valid and reliable through time and across occidental and oriental business contexts.Research limitations/implicationsThis study verifies and fortifies a stakeholder framework through time and across business contexts consisting of five stakeholder groups: upstream, the focal firm, downstream, market and societal.Practical implicationsThe framework of firms' business sustainability endeavours provides guidance to firms in their endeavours of business sustainability with internal and external stakeholders.Originality/valueThis study contributes to existing theory and previous studies by validating a stakeholder framework of business sustainability with internal and external stakeholders beyond occidental business context to be also valid and reliable in oriental ones.

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