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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-35
René Mayrhofer ◽  
Stephan Sigg

Mobile device authentication has been a highly active research topic for over 10 years, with a vast range of methods proposed and analyzed. In related areas, such as secure channel protocols, remote authentication, or desktop user authentication, strong, systematic, and increasingly formal threat models have been established and are used to qualitatively compare different methods. However, the analysis of mobile device authentication is often based on weak adversary models, suggesting overly optimistic results on their respective security. In this article, we introduce a new classification of adversaries to better analyze and compare mobile device authentication methods. We apply this classification to a systematic literature survey. The survey shows that security is still an afterthought and that most proposed protocols lack a comprehensive security analysis. The proposed classification of adversaries provides a strong and practical adversary model that offers a comparable and transparent classification of security properties in mobile device authentication.

Kathrin Rottermann ◽  
Annika Weigelt ◽  
Tim Stäbler ◽  
Benedikt Ehrlich ◽  
Sven Dittrich ◽  

Abstract Purpose Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in preschoolers (4–6 years) represents a challenge. Most studies investigating CPET have been limited to older children (> 8 year). However, knowledge of the performance of small children is essential for evaluating their cardiorespiratory fitness. This study strives to compare a modified Bruce protocol with a new age-appropriate incremental CPET during natural movement running outdoors, using a mobile device. Methods A group of 22 4–6-year-old healthy children was tested indoor on a treadmill (TM) using the modified Bruce protocol. The results were compared with a self-paced incremental running test, using a mobile CPET device in an outdoor park. The speeds were described as (1) slow walking, (2) slow running, (3) regular running, and (4) running with full speed as long as possible. Results Mean exercise time outdoors (6,57 min) was significantly shorter than on the treadmill (11,20 min), $$\dot{V}{O}_{2peak}$$ V ˙ O 2 p e a k (51.1 ml/min/kg vs. 40.1 ml/min/kg), RER (1.1 vs. 0.98) and important CPET parameters such as $$\dot{V}E$$ V ˙ E max, O2pulse, heart rate and breath rate were significantly higher outdoors. The submaximal parameter OUES was comparable between both the tests. Conclusions Testing very young children with a mobile device is a new alternative to treadmill testing. With a significantly shorter test duration, significantly higher values for almost all cardiopulmonary variables can be achieved without losing the ability to determine VT1 and VT2. It avoids common treadmill problems and allows for individualized exercise testing. The aim is to standardize exercise times with individual protocols instead of standardizing protocols with individual exercise times, allowing for better comparability.

2022 ◽  
Paula Delgado-Santos ◽  
Giuseppe Stragapede ◽  
Ruben Tolosana ◽  
Richard Guest ◽  
Farzin Deravi ◽  

The number of mobile devices, such as smartphones and smartwatches, is relentlessly increasing to almost 6.8 billion by 2022, and along with it, the amount of personal and sensitive data captured by them. This survey overviews the state of the art of what personal and sensitive user attributes can be extracted from mobile device sensors, emphasising critical aspects such as demographics, health and body features, activity and behaviour recognition, etc. In addition, we review popular metrics in the literature to quantify the degree of privacy, and discuss powerful privacy methods to protect the sensitive data while preserving data utility for analysis. Finally, open research questions are presented for further advancements in the field.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Khutsafalo Kadimo ◽  
Athulang Mutshewa ◽  
Masego B. Kebaetse

Purpose Seeking to leverage on benefits of personal mobile device use, medical schools and healthcare facilities are increasingly embracing the use of personal mobile devices for medical education and healthcare delivery through bring-your-own-device (BYOD) policies. However, empirical research findings that could guide the development of BYOD policies are scarce. Available research is dominated by studies that were guided by technocentric approaches, hence seemingly overlooking the complexities of the interactions of actors in mobile device technologies implementation. The purpose of this study was to use the actor–network theory to explore the potential role of a BYOD policy at the University of Botswana’s Faculty of Medicine. Design/methodology/approach Purposive sampling was used to select the participants and interviews, focus group discussions, observations and document analysis were used to collect data. Data were collected from 27 participants and analysed using grounded theory techniques. Emerging themes were continually compared and contrasted with incoming data to create broad themes and sub-themes and to establish relationships or patterns from the data. Findings The results suggest that the potential roles for BYOD policy include promoting appropriate mobile device use, promoting equitable access to mobile devices and content, and integrating mobile devices into medical education, healthcare delivery and other institutional processes. Research limitations/implications BYOD policy could be conceptualized and researched as a “script” that binds actors/actants into a “network” of constituents (with shared interests) such as medical schools and healthcare facilities, mobile devices, internet/WiFi, computers, software, computer systems, medical students, clinical teachers or doctors, nurses, information technology technicians, patients, curriculum, information sources or content, classrooms, computer labs and infections. Practical implications BYOD is a policy that seeks to represent the interests (presents as a solution to their problems) of the key stakeholders such as medical schools, healthcare facilities and mobile device users. BYOD is introduced in medical schools and healthcare facilities to promote equitable access to mobile devices and content, appropriate mobile device use and ensure distribution of liability between the mobile device users and the institution and address the implication of mobile device use in teaching and learning. Originality/value The BYOD policy is a comprehensive solution that transcends other institutional policies and regulations to fully integrate mobile devices in medical education and healthcare delivery.

Cinzia Ullrich ◽  
Anne M. Luescher ◽  
Julian Koch ◽  
Robert N. Grass ◽  
Hugo Sax

Abstract Background To establish effective infection control protocols, understanding pathogen transmission pathways is essential. Non-infectious surrogate tracers may safely explore these pathways and challenge pre-existing assumptions. We used silica nanoparticles with encapsulated DNA (SPED) for the first time in a real-life hospital setting to investigate potential transmission routes of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the context of a prolonged outbreak. Methods The two study experiments took place in the 900-bed University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. A three-run ‘Patient experiment’ investigated pathogen transmission via toilet seats in a two-patient room with shared bathroom. First, various predetermined body and fomite sites in a two-bed patient room were probed at baseline. Then, after the first patient was contaminated with SPED at the subgluteal region, both patients sequentially performed a toilet routine. All sites were consequently swabbed again for SPED contamination. Eight hours later, further spread was tested at predefined sites in the patient room and throughout the ward. A two-run ‘Mobile device experiment’ explored the potential transmission by mobile phones and stethoscopes in a quasi-realistic setting. All SPED contamination statuses and levels were determined by real-time qPCR. Results Over all three runs, the ‘Patient experiment’ yielded SPED in 59 of 73 (80.8%) predefined body and environmental sites. Specifically, positivity rates were 100% on subgluteal skin, toilet seats, tap handles, and entertainment devices, the initially contaminated patients’ hands; 83.3% on patient phones and bed controls; 80% on intravenous pumps; 75% on toilet flush plates and door handles, and 0% on the initially not contaminated patients’ hands. SPED spread as far as doctor’s keyboards (66.6%), staff mobile phones (33.3%) and nurses’ keyboards (33.3%) after eight hours. The ‘Mobile device experiment’ resulted in 16 of 22 (72.7%) positive follow-up samples, and transmission to the second patient occurred in one of the two runs. Conclusions For the first time SPED were used to investigate potential transmission pathways in a real hospital setting. The results suggest that, in the absence of targeted cleaning, toilet seats and mobile devices may result in widespread transmission of pathogens departing from one contaminated patient skin region.

Chang-Ling Hsu ◽  
Yen-Ju Tsai ◽  
Ray-I Chang

Emerging applications for an online sign language dictionary require that retrieval systems retrieve a target vocabulary through visual symbols. However, when people encounter an unknown vocabulary in sign language during communication, they require the online dictionary to retrieve the vocabulary with higher recall-rate and smaller-sized graph through a mobile device. Still, three situations show that the current online dictionary needs an extension. First, previous works lack of retrieving the target graph of a vocabulary through its complete visual symbol-portfolio. Secondly, they often respond a large number of possible images; however, their precisions and recall rates remain very low. Thirdly, previous works of sign language gloves can convert the visual symbols into the graphic features, but only part of the symbols, ignoring the symbols of expression and relative direction. Therefore, the aim of this study is, based on Taiwanese Sign Language, to design a new graph retrieval architecture for sign-language (GRAS), and to implement a new graph retrieval system for sign-language (GRSS) based on this architecture. Finally, we invite users to evaluate GRSS. The experimental results show that GRSS gets convincing performance. And, GRSS adopting RDF technology can improve the performance of GRSS without adopting RDF technology.

Bambang Pudjoatmodjo ◽  
Amir Hasanudin Fauzi ◽  
Sazilah Salam ◽  
Tio Ahmad Muluk ◽  
Dendy Syahreza Maulana

Gobak Sodor is a traditional game that came from Indonesia. Gobak Sodor is also known as a different name in Indonesia and Malaysia, such as Panjang tangan in Riau-Sumatra, Asing in Makassar, Galah Asin in West Java, and Galah Panjang in Malaysia. Gobak Sodor is a game that is played in two groups and has a rule that one group must prevent the opponent through the line back to back. However, Indonesia's open area has gradually reduced so that people difficult to play gobak Sodor. The loss of open land for playing Gobak Sodor and game technology advances make children slowly forget the gobak sodor. In the present time, technology is common for people to support their daily life activities. One of technology implementation form is electronic game, where peoples can play without the limitation of time and space. The electronic game also give pleasure and fun as much as conventional game activities. With the form of electronic game, this research develop a game application which implements all of the gobak sodor rules. Where the players can play the gobak sodor using their mobile device and without the trouble to play on a field or open space. Using electronic game for playing Gobak Sodor gives people satisfaction, awareness. In the hope that this will preserves the traditional game Gobak Sodor. The survey found that 80% of people have an interest to play The Gobak Sodor game.

2022 ◽  
Kosom Chaitavon ◽  
Sarun Sumriddetchkajorn ◽  
Anchalee Prasertsak ◽  
sataporn chanhorm ◽  
Panintorn Prempree ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Long Cheng

The promotion of ice and snow sports not only provides professional athletes for the Winter Olympics but also acts as appreciative mass bases for ice and snow sports. The appearance of ice and snow sports will bring a new consumption pattern and develop a new ice and snow industry. In this paper, an Internet of Things (IoT)-based sports information collection system which is specifically designed and developed for the healthcare domain specifically in the snow and ice sports is proposed. The physiological parameters such as body temperature, ECG, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood oxygen saturation are captured through various monitoring devices. These physiological parameters are transmitted to the mobile device by the wireless module and mobile device that receives and displays these physiological parameters. A complete hardware design of the whole ice and snow sports health and sports information acquisition system, which is based on the Internet of Things, is given, and then, there is the overall design scheme of the system, such as adopted modular design for the system, attitude measurement unit, UWB positioning unit, data storage, and communication unit, respectively. The measurement results of the professional medical equipment are compared with those of acquisition equipment in real environment of ice and sports. These results have verified accuracy of data collected by acquisition equipment and meet the design requirements of the proposed system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Forrest W. Crawford ◽  
Sydney A. Jones ◽  
Matthew Cartter ◽  
Samantha G. Dean ◽  
Joshua L. Warren ◽  

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