high intensity interval
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2022 ◽  
Vol 65 (5) ◽  
pp. 101586
Mariana Brondani de Mello ◽  
Natiele Camponogara Righi ◽  
Felipe Barreto Schuch ◽  
Luis Ulisses Signori ◽  
Antônio Marcos Vargas da Silva

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Bernardo N. Ide ◽  
Amanda P. Silvatti ◽  
Moacir Marocolo ◽  
Clarcson P. C. Santos ◽  
Bruno V. C. Silva ◽  

This conceptual review investigates whether functional training (FT) is a different approach from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance (aerobic or cardiorespiratory) training already adopted in the physical training plan of professional, recreational athletes, healthy, and older adults. The 20 most recent papers published involving FT were searched in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: (a) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; (b) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional training programs; (c) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes the differentiation from traditional training programs difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This apt description and classification may provide consistent and clear communication between students, coaches, athletes, and sports scientists. Based on the current evidence and to avoid confusion and misconceptions, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.

Panagiotis Ferentinos ◽  
Costas Tsakirides ◽  
Michelle Swainson ◽  
Adam Davison ◽  
Marrissa Martyn-St James ◽  

AbstractCirculating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair and their monitoring could have prognostic clinical value. Exercise is often prescribed for the management of cardiometabolic diseases, however, it is not fully understood how it regulates EPCs. Objectives: to systematically examine the acute and chronic effects of different exercise modalities on circulating EPCs in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were followed. Results: six electronic databases and reference lists of eligible studies were searched to April 2021. Thirty-six trials met the inclusion criteria including 1731 participants. Acute trials: in chronic heart failure (CHF), EPC mobilisation was acutely increased after high intensity interval or moderate intensity continuous exercise training, while findings were inconclusive after a cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test. Maximal exercise tests acutely increased EPCs in ischaemic or revascularized coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. In peripheral arterial disease (PAD), EPC levels increased up to 24 h post-exercise. In patients with compromised metabolic health, EPC mobilisation was blunted after a single exercise session. Chronic trials: in CHF and acute coronary syndrome, moderate intensity continuous protocols, with or without resistance exercise or calisthenics, increased EPCs irrespective of EPC identification phenotype. Findings were equivocal in CAD regardless of exercise mode, while in severe PAD disease EPCs increased. High intensity interval training increased EPCs in hypertensive metabolic syndrome and heart failure reduced ejection fraction. Conclusion: the clinical condition and exercise modality influence the degree of EPC mobilisation and magnitude of EPC increases in the long term. Graphical abstract 

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Ida A. Kiel ◽  
Sofie Lionett ◽  
Evelyn B. Parr ◽  
Helen Jones ◽  
Maria A. H. Røset ◽  

2022 ◽  
Parsa Gholipour ◽  
alireza komaki ◽  
Mahdi Ramezani

Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress and neuronal death are the primary reasons for the progression of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ecdysterone (Ecdy), a common derivative of ecdysteroids, possesses free radical scavenging and cognitive-improving effects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a therapeutic strategy for improving cognitive decline and oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of HIIT alone and its combination with Ecdysterone on the changes in learning and memory functions, hippocampal antioxidant enzymes activities, and neuronal population after AD induced by Aβ in male rats.Materials and methods: Following ten days of Aβ-injection, HIIT exercise and Ecdysterone treatment (10 mg/kg/day; P.O.) were initiated and continued for eight consecutive weeks in rats. At the end of the treatment period, rat’s learning and memory functions were assessed using water-maze and passive-avoidance tests. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GRx) and neuronal population were evaluated in rat’s brains.Results: The results indicated that Aβ injection disrupted spatial/passive avoidance learning and memory in both water-maze and passive-avoidance paradigms, accompanied by a decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase (as endogenous antioxidants) in rat hippocampus. Additionally, Aβ injection resulted in neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although consumption of Ecdysterone separately improved spatial/passive avoidance learning and memory impairments, recovered hippocampal activity of SOD, CAT, GRx, GRx and prevented the hippocampal neuronal loss, its combination with HIIT resulted in a more powerful and effective amelioration in all the above-mentioned Aβ-neuropathological changes.Conclusion: The current work's data confirms that a combination of HIIT exercise and Ecdysterone treatment could be a promising potential therapeutic agent against AD-associated cognitive decline, owing to their free radical scavenging and neuroprotective properties.

Gabrielle Yasmin Muller ◽  
Felipe de Oliveira Matos ◽  
Julio Ernesto Perego Junior ◽  
Mirian Ayumi Kurauti ◽  
Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa

High-intensity physical exercise favors anaerobic glycolysis and increases lactatemia. Lactate is converted back to glucose in the liver, so that the lactate threshold, an indicator of physical performance, must be related to the gluconeogenic capacity of the liver. This research assessed the effect of a high-intensity interval resistance training (HIIRT) on liver gluconeogenesis from lactate. Swiss mice were trained (groups T) on vertical ladder with overload of 90% of their maximal load. Control animals remained untrained (groups C0 and C8). In situ liver perfusion with lactate and adrenaline was performed in rested mice after six hours of food deprivation. There were larger outputs of glucose (T6 71.90%, T8 54.53%) and pyruvate (T8 129.28%) (representative values for 4 mM lactate) in the groups trained for six or eight weeks (T6 and T8), and of glucose in the presence of adrenaline in group T8 (280%). The content of PEPCK, an important regulatory enzyme of the gluconeogenic pathway, was 69.13% higher in group T8 than in the age-matched untrained animals (C8). HIIRT augmented liver gluconeogenesis from lactate and this might improve the lactate threshold. Bullet points: The liver metabolizes lactate from muscle into glucose. Physical training may enhance the gluconeogenic capacity of the liver. As lactate clearance by the liver improves, lactate threshold is displaced to higher exercise intensities.

Sports ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Jérémy Briand ◽  
Jonathan Tremblay ◽  
Guy Thibault

High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a time-efficient training method suggested to improve health and fitness for the clinical population, healthy subjects, and athletes. Many parameters can impact the difficulty of HIIT sessions. This study aims to highlight and explain, through logical deductions, some limitations of the Skiba and Coggan models, widely used to prescribe HIIT sessions in cycling. We simulated 6198 different HIIT training sessions leading to exhaustion, according to the Skiba and Coggan-Modified (modification of the Coggan model with the introduction of an exhaustion criterion) models, for three fictitious athlete profiles (Time-Trialist, All-Rounder, Sprinter). The simulation revealed impossible sessions (i.e., requiring athletes to surpass their maximal power output over the exercise interval duration), characterized by a few short exercise intervals, performed in the severe and extreme intensity domains, alternating with long recovery bouts. The fraction of impossible sessions depends on the athlete profile and ranges between 4.4 and 22.9% for the Skiba model and 0.6 and 3.2% for the Coggan-Modified model. For practitioners using these HIIT models, this study highlights the importance of understanding these models’ inherent limitations and mathematical assumptions to draw adequate conclusions from their use to prescribe HIIT sessions.

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