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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Narongchai Autsavapromporn ◽  
Alisa Kobayashi ◽  
Cuihua Liu ◽  
Churdsak Jaikang ◽  
Tengku Ahbrizal Tengku Ahmad ◽  
...  

Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been identified as an important contributing factor to tumor resistance and normal tissue damage. However, the RIBE in cancer and normal cells under hypoxia remain unclear. In this study, confluent A549 cancer and WI-38 normal cells were subjected to condition of hypoxia or normoxia, before exposure to high-LET protons microbeam. After 6 h incubation, cells were harvested and assayed for colony formation, micronucleus formation, chromosome aberration and western blotting. Our results show that there were differences of RIBE in bystander A549 and WI-38 cells under hypoxia and normoxia. The differences were also observed in the roles of HIF-1α expression in bystander A549 and WI-38 cells under both conditions. Furthermore, inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) showed a decrease in toxicity of hypoxia-treated bystander A549 cells, but increased in bystander WI-38 cells. These findings clearly support that GJIC protection of bystander normal cells from toxicity while enhancing in bystander cancer cells. Together, the data show a promising strategy for high-LET radiation in designing an entire new line of drugs, either increase or restore GJIC in bystander cancer cells which in turn leads to enhancement of radiation accuracy for treatment of hypoxic tumors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 597-601
Author(s):  
Haibin Song ◽  
Heng Zhang ◽  
Lei Li

Deriving from bone marrow, the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess multipolar chemotaxis, proliferation potential, along with the capability to differentiate into various types of cells. Moreover, the hypoxic stimulation can effectively induce BMSCs differentiation. This study intends to explore the impediment of BMSCs on malignant behaviors of lung cancer stem cells under hypoxia. A co-culture system of BMSCs with A549 cells was established and then assigned into normoxia group, hypoxia group (50, 100, and 200 nmol/L) followed by analysis of cell viability by CCK-8 assay and miR-145 expression by qRT-PCR. In addition, A549 cells were grouped into NC group, miR-145-mimics group, and miR-145-inhibitors group followed by analysis of cell invasion and levels of miR-145 and Oct4. Hypoxia group exhibited a reduced cell viability and higher miR-145 expression (146.01±21.23%) compared to normoxia group (P < 0.05). Transfection of miR-145-mimic significantly upregulated miR-145 and decreased cell invasion (7.49±1.43%) compared with miR-145-inhibitors group or NC group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, Oct4 level in miR-145-mimics group (0.934±2.98) was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, under hypoxia condition, the co-culture with BMSCs can upregulated miR-145 level, effectively reduce the viability of lung cancer stem cells and restrain proliferation capability.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 690-694
Author(s):  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Yi Chen ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Xueren Feng ◽  
Lijuan Zhang ◽  
...  

Lung cancer is a worldwide issue which account for the death of thousands every year. Paclitaxel (PTX) as the first line chemotherapy drug to treat lung cancer, its clinical applications is largely limited by its poor solubility. The facile preparation of pharmaceutical formulations to increase the solubility as well as targetability of PTX is of vital importance in lung cancer treatment. Herein, we introduced a facile method to prepare PTX nano-suspensions (NSs), which have high drug loading as well as well-dispersed particle size. The in vitro cell experiments revealed its capability to enhance the drug accumulation in A549 cells than free PTX. Moreover, in vivo animal assay suggested its better tumor accumulation and antitumor efficacy than PTX injection (Taxol).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 358-364
Author(s):  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Caixia Zhang

To elucidate the communication between exosomes (exo) derived from BMSCs and injured lung cells. BMSC-exo was isolated and characterized. Lung epithelial cells A549 were incubated with BMSC-exo, and treated by LPS to induce cell damage. CCK-8 assay was carried out to test cell proliferation, flow cytometry was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis, and RT-qPCR as well as Western blot analysis were selected to assess expression of apoptosis- and anti-apoptosis related proteins. Functional experiment was performed to identify the role of microRNA (miRNA)-328 in lung injury. LPS treatment significantly inhibited the viability of A549 cells, induced apoptosis of A549 cells by increasing Bax and casepase-3 levels and reducing Bcl-2 expression, whilst declined expression of miR-328 and suppressed the phosphorylation activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Meanwhile, the amount of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were elevated in injured cells, but, the presence of BMSC-exo eliminated the elevation of the contents. Importantly, treatment with BMSC-exo increased miR-328 expression, activated MAPK MAPK/ERK pathway, inhibited apoptosis, and enhanced cell proliferation. However, the effect of BMSC-exo was attenuated when the cells were silenced for miR-328 expression. Collectively, BMSC-exo enriched miR-328 could relieve acute lung injury through MAPK/ERK pathway.


Author(s):  
Dan Wang ◽  
Dazhi Long ◽  
Jiegang Zhou ◽  
Ziqiang Dong ◽  
Guiming Huang

Background: Dexmedetomidine has been reported to induce anti-apoptotic effects and metastatic progression in lung cancer. In the current investigation, the effect of β-Caryophyllene on dexmedetomidine induced cell proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and tumor growth in mice was studied. Methods: A549 cell line was cultured with either dexmedetomidine alone or together with β-Caryophyllene for 24 h and analysed for cell proliferation with MTT assay. ELISA based kit was used to determine apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Western blotting was used to determine expression levels of target proteins. The induction of experimental lung tumor in rat model was achieved through the injection of A549 tumor cells subcutaneously into the middle left side of the mice after anesthetization with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) at 2.8 × 106 cells in 400 μl of PBS. Result: We found that β-Caryophyllene exerts the anti-proliferative effects on A549 cells. Furthermore, β-Caryophyllene significantly prevents apoptotic cell death and causes up-regulation of PGC-1α and TFAM compared to dexmedetomidine treated cells. We observed that β-Caryophyllene suppressed tumor development in mice significantly compared to dexmedetomidine treated group without changing body weight.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 203
Author(s):  
Simona Ioniţă ◽  
Daniel Lincu ◽  
Raul-Augustin Mitran ◽  
Laila Ziko ◽  
Nada K. Sedky ◽  
...  

Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has attracted significant attention due to its antioxidant, cardioprotective and anticancer potential. However, its low aqueous solubility limits resveratrol bioavailability and use. In this work, different mesoporous silica matrices were used to encapsulate the polyphenol and to increase its dissolution rate. Pristine MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, SBA-16, FDU-12 and MCF silica were obtained. The influence of SBA-15 functionalized with aminopropyl, isocyanate, phenyl, mercaptopropyl, and propionic acid moieties on resveratrol loading and release profiles was also assessed. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated for mesoporous carriers and resveratrol-loaded samples against human lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell lines. The effect on apoptosis and cell cycle were assayed for selected resveratrol-loaded carriers. The polyphenol molecules are encapsulated only inside the mesopores, mostly in amorphous state. All materials containing either pristine or functionalized silica carriers increased polyphenol dissolution rate. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the mesoporous carriers and resveratrol–loaded supports on the kinetic parameters was identified. [email protected] and [email protected] samples exhibited the highest anticancer effect against A549 cells (IC50 values were 26.06 and 36.5 µg/mL, respectively) and against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values were 35.56 and 19.30 µg/mL, respectively), which highlights their potential use against cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010219
Author(s):  
Aaqib Sohail ◽  
Azeem A. Iqbal ◽  
Nishika Sahini ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  
Mohamed Tantawy ◽  
...  

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. Itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.


Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Author(s):  
Ahmed Al Saqr ◽  
El-Sayed Khafagy ◽  
Mohammed F. Aldawsari ◽  
Khaled Almansour ◽  
Amr S. Abu Lila

Furanodienone (FDN), a major bioactive component of sesquiterpenes produced from Rhizoma curcumae, has been repeatedly acknowledged for its intrinsic anticancer efficacy against different types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic potential of furanodienone against human lung cancer (NSCLC A549) cells in vitro, as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms in the induction of apoptosis. Herein, we found that FDN significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with FDN potentially triggered apoptosis in A549 cells via not only disrupting the nuclear morphology, but by activating capsase-9 and caspase-3 with concomitant modulation of the pro- and antiapoptotic gene expression as well. Furthermore, FDN revealed its competence in inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in A549 cells, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), along with increased expression of CDK inhibitor p21Cip1. Intriguingly, FDN treatment efficiently downregulated the Wnt signaling pathway, which was correlated with increased apoptosis, as well as cell cycle arrest, in A549 cells. Collectively, FDN might represent a promising adjuvant therapy for the management of lung cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fuxin Zhao ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
Hui Zhou ◽  
Peter S. Reinach ◽  
Yuhan Wang ◽  
...  

Myopia is the most common cause of refractive error worldwide. High myopia is a severe type of myopia, which usually accompanies pathological changes in the fundus. To identify high myopia susceptibility genes, DNA-pooling based genome-wide association analysis was used to search for a correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms and high myopia in a Han Chinese cohort (cases vs. controls in discovery stage: 507 vs. 294; replication stage 1: 991 vs. 1,025; replication stage 2: 1,021 vs. 52,708). Three variants (rs10889602T/G, rs2193015T/C, rs9676191A/C) were identified as being significantly associated with high myopia in the discovery, and replication stage. rs10889602T/G is located at the third intron of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), whose functional assays were performed by comparing the effects of rs10889602T/T deletion of this risk allele on PDE4B and COL1A1 gene and protein expression levels in the rs10889602T/Tdel/del, rs10889602T/Tdel/wt, and normal control A549 cell lines. The declines in the PDE4B and COL1A1 gene expression levels were larger in the rs10889602T/T deleted A549 cells than in the normal control A549 cells (one-way ANOVA, p &lt; 0.001). The knockdown of PDE4B by siRNA in human scleral fibroblasts led to downregulation of COL1A1. This correspondence between the declines in rs10889602 of the PDE4B gene, PDE4B knockdown, and COL1A1 protein expression levels suggest that PDE4B may be a novel high myopia susceptibility gene, which regulates myopia progression through controlling scleral collagen I expression levels. More studies are needed to determine if there is a correlation between PDE4B and high myopia in other larger sample sized cohorts.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
J. S. Weissenrieder ◽  
J. D. Weissenkampen ◽  
J. L. Reed ◽  
M. V. Green ◽  
C. Zheng ◽  
...  

AbstractThe schweinfurthin family of natural compounds exhibit a unique and potent differential cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines and may reduce tumor growth in vivo. In some cell lines, such as SF-295 glioma cells, schweinfurthins elicit cytotoxicity at nanomolar concentrations. However, other cell lines, like A549 lung cancer cells, are resistant to schweinfurthin treatment up to micromolar concentrations. At this time, the precise mechanism of action and target for these compounds is unknown. Here, we employ RNA sequencing of cells treated with 50 nM schweinfurthin analog TTI-3066 for 6 and 24 h to elucidate potential mechanisms and pathways which may contribute to schweinfurthin sensitivity and resistance. The data was analyzed via an interaction model to observe differential behaviors between sensitive SF-295 and resistant A549 cell lines. We show that metabolic and stress-response pathways were differentially regulated in the sensitive SF-295 cell line as compared with the resistant A549 cell line. In contrast, A549 cell had significant alterations in response genes involved in translation and protein metabolism. Overall, there was a significant interaction effect for translational proteins, RNA metabolism, protein metabolism, and metabolic genes. Members of the Hedgehog pathway were differentially regulated in the resistant A549 cell line at both early and late time points, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance. Indeed, when cotreated with the Smoothened inhibitor cyclopamine, A549 cells became more sensitive to schweinfurthin treatment. This study therefore identifies a key interplay with the Hedgehog pathway that modulates sensitivity to the schweinfurthin class of compounds.


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