Lung Disease
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nam Eun Kim ◽  
Ala Woo ◽  
Song Yee Kim ◽  
Ah Young Leem ◽  
Youngmok Park ◽  
...  

Abstract Background As lung transplantation (LTx) is becoming a standard treatment for end-stage lung disease, the use of bridging with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasing. We examined the clinical impact of being awake during ECMO as bridging therapy in patients awaiting LTx. Methods In this single-center study, we retrospectively reviewed 241 consecutive LTx patients between October 2012 and March 2019; 64 patients received ECMO support while awaiting LTx. We divided into awake and non-awake groups and compared. Results Twenty-five patients (39.1%) were awake, and 39 (61.0%) were non-awake. The median age of awake patients was 59.0 (interquartile range, 52.5–63.0) years, and 80% of the group was men. The awake group had better post-operative outcomes than the non-awake group: statistically shorter post-operative intensive care unit length of stay [awake vs. non-awake, 6 (4–8.5) vs. 18 (11–36), p < 0.001], longer ventilator free days [awake vs. non-awake, 24 (17–26) vs. 0 (0–15), p < 0.001], and higher gait ability after LTx (awake vs. non-awake, 92% vs. 59%, p = 0.004), leading to higher 6-month and 1-year lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s: awake vs. non-awake, 6-month, 77.5% vs. 61%, p = 0.004, 1-year, 75% vs. 57%, p = 0.013). Furthermore, the awake group had significantly lower 6-month and 1-year mortality rates than the non-awake group (6-month 12% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.022, 1-year 24% vs. 53.8%, p = 0.018). Conclusions In patients with end-stage lung disease, considering the long-term and short-term impacts, the awake ECMO strategy could be useful compared with the non-awake ECMO strategy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 49-50
Author(s):  
Varsha H Vyas ◽  
Raghbirsingh Gehdoo ◽  
Shruti Hazari ◽  
Parthkumar Hirpara ◽  
Mankeerat Kaur ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 60 (1) ◽  
pp. 83-111
Author(s):  
Thomas Semple ◽  
Abbey J. Winant ◽  
Edward Y. Lee

2021 ◽  
pp. 1671-1676
Author(s):  
Hideko Hoshina ◽  
Hiroyuki Takei

Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) has been occasionally reported with various causative drugs. In the context of breast cancer, anthracycline infrequently causes pulmonary adverse events. We report a 67-year-old woman with cT2N0M0 triple-negative breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with anthracycline-combined chemotherapy with pegfilgrastim. She developed fever, cough, and shortness of breath after 21 days of the scheduled fourth cycle of anthracycline. Computed tomography revealed drug-induced interstitial pneumonia. Prednisolone (1 mg/kg) was administrated and gradually decreased. Thereby, interstitial pneumonia quickly improved. Partial resection of the left breast and sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed, and we diagnosed ypT1bN0. The patient received 4 cycles of taxane and hypofractional radiotherapy and survived without any recurrences over the following 37 months. We report a rare case of DILD due to anthracycline-combined chemotherapy. Twenty-five cases of DILD with breast cancer after administration of anthracycline have been reported so far. However, 14 cases occurred during taxane. Most of the cases had remission by steroid treatment. The patients with respiratory symptoms during chemotherapy should be suspicious of not only infection but also DILD.


Author(s):  
Gillian C Goobie ◽  
Christopher J Ryerson ◽  
Kerri A Johannson ◽  
Erin Schikowski ◽  
Richard H Zou ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Mauricio Orozco-Levi ◽  
Claudia Colmenares-Mejía ◽  
Jessica Ruíz ◽  
Yurley Dayanna Valencia-Barón ◽  
Alba Ramírez-Sarmiento ◽  
...  

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, treatable lung disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and multiorgan impact. This affects the nutritional status of patients and requires multidimensional interventions including nutritional interventions according to individual metabolic needs. Our scoping review determined the effects of antioxidants in the treatment of COPD patients and their role in the decrease in the probability of exacerbations, hospital readmissions, and changes in lung function. The sources MEDLINE, LILACS, and Google Scholar were consulted and 19 studies were selected. The most indicated antioxidants are N-Acetylcysteine, vitamins E and D, and Zinc. Other antioxidants from plants or fruits extracts are also being investigated. The beneficial effect of antioxidants in stable or exacerbated patients is not clear, but theoretical and biological arguments of benefit justify lines of research that specify the impact on reducing oxidative stress and negative effects in COPD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Albina Tyker ◽  
Iazsmin Bauer Ventura ◽  
Cathryn T. Lee ◽  
Rachel Strykowski ◽  
Nicole Garcia ◽  
...  

AbstractRheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is a common connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD) associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although rheumatoid factor (RF) seropositivity is a risk factor for developing RA-ILD, the relationship between RF seropositivity, mediastinal lymph node (MLN) features, and disease progression is unknown. We aimed to determine if high-titer RF seropositivity predicted MLN features, lung function impairment, and mortality in RA-ILD. In this retrospective cohort study, we identified patients in the University of Chicago ILD registry with RA-ILD. We compared demographic characteristics, serologic data, MLN size, count and location, and pulmonary function over 36 months among patients who had high-titer RF seropositivity (≥ 60 IU/ml) and those who did not. Survival analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. Amongst 294 patients with CTD-ILD, available chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and serologic data, we identified 70 patients with RA-ILD. Compared to RA-ILD patients with low-titer RF, RA-ILD patients with high-titer RF had lower baseline forced vital capacity (71% vs. 63%; P = 0.045), elevated anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide titer (122 vs. 201; P = 0.001), CT honeycombing (50% vs. 80%; P = 0.008), and higher number of MLN ≥ 10 mm (36% vs. 76%; P = 0.005). Lung function decline over 36 months did not differ between groups. Primary outcomes of death or lung transplant occurred more frequently in the high-titer RF group (HR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1–6.8; P = 0.028). High-titer RF seropositivity was associated with MLN enlargement, CT honeycombing, and decreased transplant-free survival. RF titer may be a useful prognostic marker for stratifying patients by pulmonary disease activity and mortality risk.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3270
Author(s):  
Gloria Pelizzo ◽  
Serena Silvestro ◽  
Maria Antonietta Avanzini ◽  
Gianvincenzo Zuccotti ◽  
Emanuela Mazzon ◽  
...  

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a potential therapy to treat congenital and acquired lung diseases. Due to their tissue-regenerative, anti-fibrotic, and immunomodulatory properties, MSCs combined with other therapy or alone could be considered as a new approach for repair and regeneration of the lung during disease progression and/or after post- surgical injury. Children interstitial lung disease (chILD) represent highly heterogeneous rare respiratory diseases, with a wild range of age of onset and disease expression. The chILD is characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the pulmonary parenchyma, leading to gas exchange impairment and chronic respiratory failure associated with high morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic strategy is mainly based on the use of corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and supportive care; however, the efficacy is variable, and their long-term use is associated with severe toxicity. The role of MSCs as treatment has been proposed in clinical and pre-clinical studies. In this narrative review, we report on the currently available on MSCs treatment as therapeutical strategy in chILD. The progress into the therapy of respiratory disease in children is mandatory to ameliorate the prognosis and to prevent the progression in adult age. Cell therapy may be a future therapy from both a pediatric and pediatric surgeon’s point of view.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Palak Sharma ◽  
Priya Maurya ◽  
T. Muhammad

Abstract Background Chronic conditions reduce the likelihood of physical functioning among older adults. However, the contribution of most prevalent diseases and multimorbidity to different measures of functional limitations is relatively underexplored among Indian older adults. The present study explores the prospective association between number of chronic conditions and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among older adults in India. Methods This study utilized data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI-2017-18). The effective sample size was 31,464 older adults aged 60 years and above. Descriptive statistics along with cross-tabulation were presented in the study. Additionally, binary logistic regression analysis was used to fulfil the objectives. The outcome variables were dichotomized; high representing no difficulty in ADL/IADL and low representing a difficulty in at least one ADL/IADL. The chronic conditions included hypertension, diabetes, neurological/psychiatric disease, lung disease, heart diseases, stroke, and bone-related disease. The number of chronic diseases was categorized into no disease, single, two and three plus based on number of reported disease. Results 26.36% of older women and 20.87% of older men had low ADL and the figures for low IADL were 56.86 and 38.84% for older men and women respectively. The likelihood of low ADL (AOR: 1.698, CI:1.544, 1.868) and low IADL (AOR: 1.197; CI: 1.064, 1.346) was higher among womenthan men. With increasing age, the prevalence of low ADL increased among older adults. Respondents with pre-existing chronic conditions had higher likelihood of low ADL and IADL. Older adults with hypertension, psychiatric disease, heart disease, stroke and bone-related disease had significantly higher odds of reporting low IADL. The chances of low ADL and IADL were 2.156 (CI: 1.709, 2.719) and 2.892 (CI: 2.067, 4.047) times respectively higher among older adults with more than three chronic conditions. After controlling for socio-economic and health-related covariates, it was found that men with more than three pre-existing chronic conditions had higher odds of low ADL than women. On the other hand, low IADL were found higher among women with more than three pre-existing chronic conditions. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a significant burden of functional limitations among older individuals and that there is a strong association between pre-existing chronic conditions and functional disability. Those with hypertension, diabetes, psychiatric disorders, heart disease, stroke, lung disease or bone-related diseases should be effectively monitored to predict future functional limitations, which may lead to worsening health.


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