pharmaceutical formulations
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 690-694
Wei Zhang ◽  
Yi Chen ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Xueren Feng ◽  
Lijuan Zhang ◽  

Lung cancer is a worldwide issue which account for the death of thousands every year. Paclitaxel (PTX) as the first line chemotherapy drug to treat lung cancer, its clinical applications is largely limited by its poor solubility. The facile preparation of pharmaceutical formulations to increase the solubility as well as targetability of PTX is of vital importance in lung cancer treatment. Herein, we introduced a facile method to prepare PTX nano-suspensions (NSs), which have high drug loading as well as well-dispersed particle size. The in vitro cell experiments revealed its capability to enhance the drug accumulation in A549 cells than free PTX. Moreover, in vivo animal assay suggested its better tumor accumulation and antitumor efficacy than PTX injection (Taxol).

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 836
Melissa Jones ◽  
Corina Mihaela Ionescu ◽  
Daniel Walker ◽  
Susbin Raj Wagle ◽  
Bozica Kovacevic ◽  

Biguanides, particularly the widely prescribed drug metformin, have been marketed for many decades and have well-established absorption profiles. They are commonly administered via the oral route and, despite variation in oral uptake, remain commonly prescribed for diabetes mellitus, typically type 2. Studies over the last decade have focused on the design and development of advanced oral delivery dosage forms using bio nano technologies and novel drug carrier systems. Such studies have demonstrated significantly enhanced delivery and safety of biguanides using nanocapsules. Enhanced delivery and safety have widened the potential applications of biguanides not only in diabetes but also in other disorders. Hence, this review aimed to explore biguanides’ pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmaceutical applications in diabetes, as well as in other disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 685
Nerea Guembe-Michel ◽  
Adrián Durán ◽  
Rafael Sirera ◽  
Gustavo González-Gaitano

Pseudopolyrotaxanes (PPRs) are supramolecular structures consisting of macrocycles able to thread on a linear polymer chain in a reversible, non-covalent way, often referred to in the literature as “molecular necklaces”. While the synthesis and reaction mechanisms of these structures in solution have been widely described, their solvent-free production has received little attention, despite the advantages that this route may offer. We propose in this work a kinetic mechanism that describes the PPR formation in the solid phase as a process occurring in two consecutive stages. This mechanism has been used to investigate the spontaneous formation of a PPR that occurs when grinding α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the threading stage, the inclusion of the polymer and subsequent release of the water molecules lodged in the cavity of the macrocycle cause vibrational changes that are reflected in the time-dependence of the FTIR-ATR spectra, while the further assembly of PPRs to form crystals produces characteristic reflections in the XRD patterns, due to the channel-like arrangement of CDs, that can be used to track the formation of the adduct in crystalline form. The effects that working variables have on the kinetics of the reaction, such as temperature, feed ratio, molar mass of the polymer and the introduction of an amorphous block in the polymer structure, have been investigated. The rate constants of the threading step increase with the temperature and the activation energy of the process increases at lower proportions of CD to PEG. This is attributed to the lower degree of covering of the polymer chain with CDs that reduces the hydrogen-bonding driven stabilization between adjacent macrocycles. The formation of crystalline PPR, which takes place slowly at room temperature, is markedly promoted at higher temperatures, with lower proportions of CD favoring both the formation and the growth of the crystals. The molar mass of the polymer does not modify the typical channel-like arrangement of packed PPRs but the conversion into crystalline PPR diminishes when using PEG1000 instead of PEG400. At a microscopic level, the crystals arrange into lamellar structures, in the order of hundreds of nm, embedded in an amorphous-like matrix. The introduction of a polypropylene oxide block in the structure of the polymer (Pluronic L62) renders poorer yields and a considerable loss of crystallinity of the product of the reaction. The methodology here proposed can be applied to the general case of inclusion complexes of CDs with drugs in the solid phase, or to multicomponent systems that contain polymers as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations along with CDs.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Nebojša Pavlović ◽  
Isidora Anastasija Bogićević ◽  
Dragana Zaklan ◽  
Maja Đanić ◽  
Svetlana Goločorbin-Kon ◽  

Clindamycin hydrochloride is a widely used antibiotic for topical use, but its main disadvantage is poor skin penetration. Therefore, new approaches in the development of clindamycin topical formulations are of great importance. We aimed to investigate the effects of the type of gelling agent (carbomer and sodium carmellose), and the type and concentration of bile acids as penetration enhancers (0.1% and 0.5% of cholic and deoxycholic acid), on clindamycin release rate and permeation in a cellulose membrane in vitro model. Eight clindamycin hydrogel formulations were prepared using a 23 full factorial design, and they were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, drug content, drug release, and permeability parameters. Although formulations with carbomer as the gelling agent exerted optimal sensory properties, carmellose sodium hydrogels had significantly higher release rates and permeation of clindamycin hydrochloride. The bile acid enhancement factors were higher in carbomer gels, and cholic acid exerted more pronounced permeation-enhancing effects. Since the differences in the permeation parameters of hydrogels containing cholic acid in different concentrations were insignificant, its addition in a lower concentration is more favorable. The hydrogel containing carmellose sodium as a gelling agent and 0.1% cholic acid as a penetration enhancer can be considered as the formulation of choice.

2022 ◽  
Lara Massai ◽  
Damiano Cirri ◽  
Tiziano Marzo ◽  
Luigi Messori

Today colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. This disease is poorly chemo-sensitive toward the existing medical treatments so that new and more effective therapeutic agents are urgently needed and intensely sought. Platinum drugs, oxaliplatin in particular, were reported to produce some significant benefit in CRC treatment, triggering the general interest of medicinal chemists and oncologists for metal-based compounds as candidate anti-CRC drugs. Within this frame, gold compounds and, specifically, the established antiarthritic drug auranofin with its analogs, form a novel group of promising anticancer agents. Owing to its innovative mechanism of action and its favorable pharmacological profile, auranofin together with its derivatives are proposed here as novel experimental agents for CRC treatment, capable of overcoming resistance to platinum drugs. Some encouraging results in this direction have already been obtained. A few recent studies demonstrate that the action of auranofin may be further potentiated through the preparation of suitable pharmaceutical formulations capable of protecting the gold pharmacophore from unselective reactivity or through the design of highly synergic drug combinations. The perspectives of the research in this field are outlined.

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