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Taccyanna M. Ali ◽  
Bianca D. W. Linnenkamp ◽  
Guilherme L. Yamamoto ◽  
Rachel S. Honjo ◽  
Hamilton Cabral de Menezes Filho ◽  

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 3302-3302
Xining Yang ◽  
Ping Xiang ◽  
Leo Escano ◽  
Ishpreet Dhillon ◽  
Edith Schneider ◽  

Abstract Myeloid ecotropic virus insertion site 1 (MEIS1) is essential for normal hematopoiesis and is deregulated in a large subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by yet unknown mechanisms. We previously identified 3 candidate enhancer regions: enhancer region 1 (E1) at -2 kb upstream; enhancer region 2 (E2) at +10.6 kb downstream inside intron 6; and enhancer region 3 (E3) +140 kb downstream of the translation start site. In the current study, we utilized CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to further characterize these enhancers in a human AML cell line and identify the key transcription factors (TFs) associated with their function. To efficiently track MEIS1 expression levels, a GFP reporter, a P2A self-cleaving peptide tag and a hemagglutinin tag at its translation start site was introduced in a MEIS1 high expressing human AML cell line, U937. Then we introduced random mutations (Indels) along the MEIS1 locus utilizing a CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing vector system in mono-allelic MEIS1-GFP-tagged U937 cells with special focus on the previously identified enhancer regions to find the key sequences important to the function of the MEIS1 enhancer regions. Two targeted regions yielding the highest proportion of GFP - cells corresponded to the E2 enhancer region within intron 6 and were referred to as E2.1 and E2.2. Using chromosome conformation capture (3C) assay, we detected a significantly decreased interaction (p=0.0022) between the promoter and the intron 6 region surrounding the E2 region in E2.2 targeted cells compared to the parental cells. Moreover, our data indicated that the DNA sequence within E2.2 is highly critical to this region's enhancer function which is further influenced by the larger genomic region surrounding the E2.1 gRNA targeted site. To identify TFs binding to the E2 region, we further scrutinized the E2.2 indel region for loss of TF binding sites. We performed TF prediction analysis and performed a protein pull down-mass spectrometry experiment to identify TF candidates. The overlap yielded a list of 7 TFs, each of which we targeted via CRISPR/Cas9. Reduction in GFP levels was only observed for FLI1 locus targeting but not for the other 6 TFs. Concordant reduction in MEIS1 and FLI1 levels were confirmed by immunoblotting. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by quantitative PCR revealed significant FLI1 enrichment at the promoter and at 3 sites surrounding the E2.2 region (p=0.0004) compared to 4 control regions scattered along the MEIS1 locus. Given a previous study indicating MEIS1 upregulation of FLI1 in normal hematopoiesis, we hypothesised that a positive feedback loop may exist between FLI1 and MEIS1 in AML. Since MEIS1 levels are frequently elevated in normal karyotype AML (CN-AML), we used the murine Hoxa9/Meis1 AML model as a surrogate for CN-AML and performed Meis1 ChIP-seq analysis. We detected direct Meis1 binding to the intronic region of the mouse Fli1 gene as well as other ETS factor loci, in Hoxa9/Meis1 cells. To better understand the clinical relevance of FLI1 in AML, we analyzed the Beat AML dataset. High FLI1 transcript levels correlated with adverse overall survival in CN-AML (p=0.044). Additionally, we observed a trend towards worse outcome with high FLI1 in the NPM1-mutated CN-AML subtype (p=0.069). We also observed a similar correlation in CN-AML for another ETS factor, ELF1, which we had previously shown to bind and upregulate MEIS1 expression in AML, suggesting a broader unrecognized role for ETS factors in AML. In summary, we have developed a rapid flow cytometry-based readout for the fine dissection and characterization of the cis-regulatory elements and associated TFs critical for MEIS1 transcription via CRISPR-Cas9 genetic manipulation. Our study revealed FLI1 as the candidate key regulator of MEIS1 expression and a positive correlation between FLI1 mRNA levels and worse overall survival in MEIS1-high AML subgroups. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Christian Otten ◽  
Tanja Seifert ◽  
Jens Hausner ◽  
Daniela Büttner

Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system which translocates effector proteins into plant cells. T3S systems are conserved in plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and consist of at least nine structural core components, which are designated Sct (secretion and cellular translocation) in animal-pathogenic bacteria. Sct proteins are involved in the assembly of the membrane-spanning secretion apparatus which is associated with an extracellular needle structure and a cytoplasmic sorting platform. Components of the sorting platform include the ATPase SctN, its regulator SctL, and pod-like structures at the periphery of the sorting platform consisting of SctQ proteins. Members of the SctQ family form a complex with the C-terminal protein domain, SctQC, which is translated as separate protein and likely acts either as a structural component of the sorting platform or as a chaperone for SctQ. The sorting platform has been intensively studied in animal-pathogenic bacteria but has not yet been visualized in plant pathogens. We previously showed that the SctQ homolog HrcQ from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria assembles into complexes which associate with the T3S system and interact with components of the ATPase complex. Here, we report the presence of an internal alternative translation start site in hrcQ leading to the separate synthesis of the C-terminal protein region (HrcQC). The analysis of genomic hrcQ mutants showed that HrcQC is essential for pathogenicity and T3S. Increased expression levels of hrcQ or the T3S genes, however, compensated the lack of HrcQC. Interaction studies and protein analyses suggest that HrcQC forms a complex with HrcQ and promotes HrcQ stability. Furthermore, HrcQC colocalizes with HrcQ as was shown by fluorescence microscopy, suggesting that it is part of the predicted cytoplasmic sorting platform. In agreement with this finding, HrcQC interacts with the inner membrane ring protein HrcD and the SctK-like linker protein HrpB4 which contributes to the docking of the HrcQ complex to the membrane-spanning T3S apparatus. Taken together, our data suggest that HrcQC acts as a chaperone for HrcQ and as a structural component of the predicted sorting platform.

Tao Lin ◽  
Yuechan Chen ◽  
Yanling Zhang ◽  
Yaoyao Li ◽  
Lingyu Gao ◽  

Abstract Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) has been reported to inhibit adipogenesis and regulate the development of the nervous system. However, transcription regulation of KLF7 remains poorly understood. In the current study, a 2196-bp-long 5′-flanking sequence of chicken KLF7 (−2286 bp to −91 bp, upstream of the translation start site) was studied for promoter activity, and there was a remarkable promoter activity in this sequence (P<0.05). The 5′-truncated mutation analysis showed that a minimal promoter was on the sequence from −241 bp to −91 bp. In addition, GATA2 overexpression facilitated the promoter activity of pGL3-KLF7(−2286/−91), pGL3-KLF7(−1215/−91), pGL3-KLF7(−521/−91), and pGL3-KLF7(−241/−91), and GATA3 overexpression inhibited the promoter activity of pGL3-KLF7(−1845/−91), pGL3-KLF7(−1215/−91), pGL3-KLF7(−521/−91), and pGL3-KLF7(−241/−91) in chicken preadipocytes (P<0.05). Knockdown of GATA2 expression inhibited the promoter activity of pGL3-KLF7(−1215/−91) and pGL3-KLF7(−241/−91), and knockdown of GATA3 expression facilitated the promoter activity of pGL3-KLF7(−521/−91) and pGL3-KLF7(−241/−91) (P<0.05). Additionally, overexpression and knockdown analyses showed that GATA3 inhibited KLF7 mRNA expression (P<0.05), and both overexpression and knockdown of GATA2 resulted in the downregulation of KLF7 mRNA expression in chicken preadipocytes (P<0.05). Western blot analysis in chicken preadipocytes showed that GATA2 facilitated KLF7 expression and GATA3 inhibited KLF7 expression. Mutation analysis showed that the motif of ‘GGATCTATCA’ (−107 bp/−98 bp) might be a cis-regulation element, which is involved in the KLF7 expression regulation by GATA3 in chicken preadipocytes. These results provided some details of KLF7 transcription regulation in chicken adipose tissue.

2020 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Muhammad B. Faisal ◽  
Tsanko S. Gechev ◽  
Bernd Mueller-Roeber ◽  
Paul P. Dijkwel

FEBS Letters ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 593 (8) ◽  
pp. 852-867 ◽  
Charles Antony A ◽  
Anup Kumar Ram ◽  
Kalloly Dutta ◽  
Pankaj V. Alone

2018 ◽  
Sanne Boersma ◽  
Deepak Khuperkar ◽  
Bram M.P. Verhagen ◽  
Stijn Sonneveld ◽  
Jonathan B. Grimm ◽  

AbstractmRNA translation is a key step in decoding genetic information. Genetic decoding is surprisingly heterogeneous, as multiple distinct polypeptides can be synthesized from a single mRNA sequence. To study translational heterogeneity, we developed the MoonTag, a new fluorescence labeling system to visualize translation of single mRNAs. When combined with the orthogonal SunTag system, the MoonTag enables dual readouts of translation, greatly expanding the possibilities to interrogate complex translational heterogeneity. By placing MoonTag and SunTag sequences in different translation reading frames, each driven by distinct translation start sites, start site selection of individual ribosomes can be visualized in real-time. We find that start site selection is largely stochastic, but that the probability of using a particular start site differs among mRNA molecules, and can be dynamically regulated over time. Together, this study provides key insights into translation start site selection heterogeneity, and provides a powerful toolbox to visualize complex translation dynamics.

2017 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Adrien Chauvier ◽  
Frédéric Picard-Jean ◽  
Jean-Christophe Berger-Dancause ◽  
Laurène Bastet ◽  
Mohammad Reza Naghdi ◽  

Transfusion ◽  
2013 ◽  
pp. n/a-n/a
Grady R. Blacken ◽  
James C. Zimring ◽  
Xiaoyun Fu

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