pathogenic bacteria
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 247-254
Xiang Gao ◽  
Zixuan Wang ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Xiaoling Zhang ◽  
Shengqiang Du ◽  

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Shahzad ◽  
M. Chaudhry ◽  
M. G. Shahid ◽  
A. Ahsan ◽  
M. Dar ◽  

Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
R. Ullah ◽  
A. W. Qureshi ◽  
A. Sajid ◽  
I. Khan ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.

Sri Hidanah ◽  
Emy Koestanti Sabdoningrum ◽  
Soeharsono . ◽  
Ayu Andira ◽  
Noor Amina Varhana

Background: Salmonella Pullorum are pathogenic bacteria that causes salmonellosis and causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry and are zoonotic. Treatment of diseases caused by bacteria generally use antibiotics, but excessive administration of antibiotics causes bacterial resistance and residues in livestock. Major chemical constituents of Sambiloto are andrographolide and flavonoids. Andrographolide has antibacterial effect in addition to being antitoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic. Methods: The research was conducted by isolating and identifying Salmonella Pullorum on SSA media and a series of biochemical tests (TSIA, SIM, SCA, urea media and sugar test), manufacturing sambiloto extract, testing the sensitivity of several antibiotics using the disk diffusion method and testing the activation of sambiloto extract against Salmonella Pullorum using the disk diffusion and dilution methods. Result: The result show that sambiloto had antibacterial activity because it contained andrographolide, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins and the lowest extract dose that effectively killed Salmonella Pullorum is concentrations of 20%.

2022 ◽  
joachim Marien ◽  
Bram Vanden Broecke ◽  
Pamela June Tafompa ◽  
Lisse Bernaerts ◽  
Alexis Ribas Salvador ◽  

Advances in experimental and theoretical work increasingly suggest that parasite interactions within a single host can affect the spread and severity of wildlife diseases. Yet empirical data to support predicted co-infection patterns are limited due to the practical challenges of gathering convincing data from animal populations and the stochastic nature of parasite transmission. Here, we investigated co-infection patterns between micro- (bacteria and protozoa) and macroparasites (gastrointestinal helminths) in natural populations of the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis). Fieldwork was performed in Morogoro (Tanzania), where we trapped 211 individual M. natalensis and tested their behavior using a modified open-field arena. All animals were checked on the presence of helminths in their gastrointestinal tract, three bacteria (Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia) and two protozoan genera (Piroplasma and Hepatozoon). Besides the presence of eight different helminth genera (reported earlier), we found that 21% of M. natalensis were positive for Anaplasma, 13% for Bartonella, and 2% for Hepatozoon species. Hierarchical modelling of species communities was used to investigate the effect of the different host-related factors on these parasites infection probability and community structure. Our results show that the infection probability of Anaplasma and Bartonella was higher in adults than juveniles. We also observed that females and less explorative individuals had a higher infection probability with Bartonella. We found limited support for within-host interactions between micro-and macroparasites, as only animals infected with Bartonella were significantly more likely to be infected with Protospirura, Trichuris, and Trichostrongylidae helminths.

2022 ◽  
Man In Lam ◽  
Kinga Vojnits ◽  
Michael Zhao ◽  
Sepideh Pakpour ◽  
Piers Macnaughton

Built environments play a key role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Ventilation rates, air temperature and humidity affect airborne transmission while cleaning protocols, material properties and light exposure can influence viability of pathogens on surfaces. We investigated how indoor daylight intensity and spectrum through electrochromic (EC) windows can impact the growth rate and viability of indoor pathogens on different surface materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabric, polystyrene (PS), and glass) compared to traditional blinds. Our results showed that tinted EC windows let in higher energy, shorter wavelength daylight than those with clear window and blind. The growth rates of pathogenic bacteria and fungi were significantly lower in spaces with EC windows compared to blinds: nearly 100% growth rate reduction was observed when EC windows were in their clear state followed by 41-100% reduction in bacterial growth rate and 26-42% reduction in fungal growth rate when EC windows were in their darkest tint. Moreover, bacterial viabilities were significantly lower on PVC fabric when they were exposed to indoor light at EC-tinted window. These findings are deemed fundamental to the design of healthy modern buildings, especially those that encompass sick and vulnerable individuals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
George M. Ongwae ◽  
Mahendra D. Chordia ◽  
Jennie L. Cawley ◽  
Brianna E. Dalesandro ◽  
Nathan J. Wittenberg ◽  

AbstractBacteriophages are highly abundant molecular machines that have evolved proteins to target the surface of host bacterial cells. Given the ubiquity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, we reasoned that targeting proteins from bacteriophages could be leveraged to target the surface of Gram-negative pathogens for biotechnological applications. To this end, a short tail fiber (GP12) from the T4 bacteriophage, which infects Escherichia coli (E. coli), was isolated and tested for the ability to adhere to whole bacterial cells. We found that, surprisingly, GP12 effectively bound the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells despite the established preferred host of T4 for E. coli. In efforts to elucidate why this binding pattern was observed, it was determined that the absence of the O-antigen region of LPS on E. coli improved cell surface tagging. This indicated that O-antigens play a significant role in controlling cell adhesion by T4. Probing GP12 and LPS interactions further using deletions of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of LPS revealed the inner core oligosaccharide as a possible main target of GP12. Finally, we demonstrated the potential utility of GP12 for biomedical applications by showing that GP12-modified agarose beads resulted in the depletion of pathogenic bacteria from solution.

Janette Chammas ◽  
Mallika Iyer ◽  
George Minasov ◽  
Ludmilla Shuvalova ◽  
Wayne Anderson ◽  

Pathogenic bacteria attack their host by secreting virulence factors that in various ways interrupt host defenses and damage their cells. Functions of many virulence factors, even from well-studied pathogens, are still unknown. Francisella tularensis is a class A pathogen and a causative agent of tularemia, a disease that is lethal without proper treatment. Here we report the three-dimensional structure and preliminary analysis of the potential virulence factor identified by the transcriptomic analysis of the F. tularensis disease models that is encoded by the FTT_1539 gene. The structure of the FTT_1539 protein contains two sets of three stranded antiparallel beta sheets, with a helix placed between the first and the second beta strand in each sheet. This structural motif, previously seen in virulence factors from other pathogens, was named the SHS2 motif and identified to play a role in protein-protein interactions and small molecule recognition. Sequence and structure analysis identified FTT_1539 as a member of a large family of secreted proteins from a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While the specific function of the proteins from this class is still unknown, their similarity to the H. pylori Tip-α protein that induces TNF-a and other chemokines through NF-kB activation suggests the existence of a common pathogen-host interference mechanism shared by multiple human pathogens.

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