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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2229, 1471-2229

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Jing Geng ◽  
Yanli Du ◽  
Qiang Zhao ◽  
Wenjing Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an essential crop with high economic value. The growth of this plant is sensitive to environmental stress. Heat shock factor (Hsf) is a family of antiretroviral transcription factors that regulate plant defense system against biotic and abiotic stress. To date, few studies have identified and bio-analyzed Hsfs in common bean. Results In this study, 30 Hsf transcription factors (PvHsf1–30) were identified from the PFAM database. The PvHsf1–30 belonged to 14 subfamilies with similar motifs, gene structure and cis-acting elements. The Hsf members in Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays) and common bean were classified into 14 subfamilies. Collinearity analysis showed that PvHsfs played a role in the regulation of responses to abiotic stress. The expression of PvHsfs varied across different tissues. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that most PvHsfs were differentially expressed under cold, heat, salt and heavy metal stress, indicating that PvHsfs might play different functions depending on the type of abiotic stress. Conclusions In this study, we identified 30 Hsf transcription factors and determined their location, motifs, gene structure, cis-elements, collinearity and expression patterns. It was found that PvHsfs regulates responses to abiotic stress in common bean. Thus, this study provides a basis for further analysis of the function of PvHsfs in the regulation of abiotic stress in common bean.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiuyue Ma ◽  
Yuxiao Wang ◽  
Shushun Li ◽  
Jing Wen ◽  
Lu Zhu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Acer truncatum (purpleblow maple) is a woody tree species that produces seeds with high levels of valuable fatty acids (especially nervonic acid). The species is admired as a landscape plant with high developmental prospects and scientific research value. The A. truncatum chloroplast genome has recently been reported; however, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is still unexplored. Results We characterized the A. truncatum mitogenome, which was assembled using reads from PacBio and Illumina sequencing platforms, performed a comparative analysis against different species of Acer. The circular mitogenome of A. truncatum has a length of 791,052 bp, with a base composition of 27.11% A, 27.21% T, 22.79% G, and 22.89% C. The A. truncatum mitogenome contains 62 genes, including 35 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. We also examined codon usage, sequence repeats, RNA editing and selective pressure in the A. truncatum mitogenome. To determine the evolutionary and taxonomic status of A. truncatum, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on the mitogenomes of A. truncatum and 25 other taxa. In addition, the gene migration from chloroplast and nuclear genomes to the mitogenome were analyzed. Finally, we developed a novel NAD1 intron indel marker for distinguishing several Acer species. Conclusions In this study, we assembled and annotated the mitogenome of A. truncatum, a woody oil-tree species producing nervonic acid. The results of our analyses provide comprehensive information on the A. truncatum mitogenome, which would facilitate evolutionary research and molecular barcoding in Acer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Leepica Kapoor ◽  
Andrew J. Simkin ◽  
C. George Priya Doss ◽  
Ramamoorthy Siva

Abstract Background Fruits are vital food resources as they are loaded with bioactive compounds varying with different stages of ripening. As the fruit ripens, a dynamic color change is observed from green to yellow to red due to the biosynthesis of pigments like chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Apart from making the fruit attractive and being a visual indicator of the ripening status, pigments add value to a ripened fruit by making them a source of nutraceuticals and industrial products. As the fruit matures, it undergoes biochemical changes which alter the pigment composition of fruits. Results The synthesis, degradation and retention pathways of fruit pigments are mediated by hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. Manipulation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms during fruit ripening suggests ways to enhance the desired pigments in fruits by biotechnological interventions. Here we report, in-depth insight into the dynamics of a pigment change in ripening and the regulatory mechanisms in action. Conclusions This review emphasizes the role of pigments as an asset to a ripened fruit as they augment the nutritive value, antioxidant levels and the net carbon gain of fruits; pigments are a source for fruit biofortification have tremendous industrial value along with being a tool to predict the harvest. This report will be of great utility to the harvesters, traders, consumers, and natural product divisions to extract the leading nutraceutical and industrial potential of preferred pigments biosynthesized at different fruit ripening stages.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaoning Gao ◽  
Jinsong Dong ◽  
Fatemeh Rasouli ◽  
Ali Kiani Pouya ◽  
Ayesha T. Tahir ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Chilling temperature reduces the rate of photosynthesis in plants, which is more pronounced in association with phosphate (Pi) starvation. Previous studies showed that Pi resupply improves recovery of the rate of photosynthesis in plants much better under combination of dual stresses than in non-chilled samples. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Results In this study, RNA-seq analysis showed the expression level of 41 photosynthetic genes in plant roots increased under phosphate starvation associated with 4 °C (-P 4 °C) compared to -P 23 °C. Moreover, iron uptake increased significantly in the stem cell niche (SCN) of wild type (WT) roots in -P 4 °C. In contrast, lower iron concentrations were found in SCN of aluminum activated malate transporter 1 (almt1) and its transcription factor, sensitive to protein rhizotoxicity 1 (stop1) mutants under -P 4 °C. The Fe content examined by ICP-MS analysis in -P 4 °C treated almt1 was 98.5 ng/µg, which was only 17% of that of seedlings grown under -P 23 °C. Average plastid number in almt1 root cells under -P 4 °C was less than -P 23 °C. Furthermore, stop1 and almt1 single mutants both exhibited increased primary root elongation than WT under combined stresses. In addition, dark treatment blocked the root elongation phenotype of stop1 and almt1. Conclusions Induction of photosynthetic gene expression and increased iron accumulation in roots is required for plant adjustment to chilling in association with phosphate starvation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lu-Lu Yu ◽  
Cui-Jiao Liu ◽  
Ye Peng ◽  
Zheng-Quan He ◽  
Fei Xu

Abstract Background Cyanide is a natural metabolite that exists widely in plants, and it is speculated to be involved in the regulation of various growth and development processes of plants in addition to being regarded as toxic waste. Previous studies have shown that exogenous cyanide treatment helps to improve seed germination, but the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Alisa Craig) was used as the material, and the effects of cyanide pretreatment at different concentrations on tomato seed germination were investigated. Results The results showed that exogenous application of a lower concentration of cyanide (10 μmol/L KCN) for 12 h strongly increased the tomato seed germination rate. RNA-Seq showed that compared with the control, a total of 15,418 differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) were obtained after pretreatment with KCN for 12 h, and in the next 12 h, a total of 13,425 differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) were regulated. GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated that exogenous KCN pretreatment was involved in regulating the expression (mainly downregulation) of seed storage proteins, thereby accelerating the degradation of stored proteins for seed germination. In addition, KCN pretreatment was also involved in stimulating glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Notably, it is shown that KCN acted on the regulation of plant hormone biosynthesis and perception, i.e., down-regulated the gene expression of ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction, but up-regulated the expression of genes related to GA biosynthesis and response. Consistent with this, plant hormone measurements confirmed that the levels of ABA were reduced, but GA levels were induced after pretreatment with KCN. Conclusion These findings provide new insights into the regulation of seed germination by cyanide, that is cyanide-mediated seed germination occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and is related to the mobilization of energy metabolism and the regulation of some plant hormone signals.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Weihuang Wu ◽  
Sheng Zhu ◽  
Lin Xu ◽  
Liming Zhu ◽  
Dandan Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Liriodendron chinense (Lchi) is a tree species within the Magnoliaceae family and is considered a basal angiosperm. The too low or high temperature or soil drought will restrict its growth as the adverse environmental conditions, thus improving L. chinense abiotic tolerance was the key issues to study. WRKYs are a major family of plant transcription factors known to often be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. So far, it is still largely unknown if and how the LchiWRKY gene family is tied to regulating L. chinense stress responses. Therefore, studying the involvement of the WRKY gene family in abiotic stress regulation in L. chinense could be very informative in showing how this tree deals with such stressful conditions. Results In this research, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the Liriodendron chinense (Lchi) WRKY gene family, studying their classification relationships, gene structure, chromosomal locations, gene duplication, cis-element, and response to abiotic stress. The 44 members of the LchiWRKY gene family contain a significant amount of sequence diversity, with their lengths ranging from 525 bp to 40,981 bp. Using classification analysis, we divided the 44 LchiWRKY genes into three phylogenetic groups (I, II, II), with group II then being further divided into five subgroups (IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, IIe). Comparative phylogenetic analysis including the WRKY families from 17 plant species suggested that LchiWRKYs are closely related to the Magnolia Cinnamomum kanehirae WRKY family, and has fewer family members than higher plants. We found the LchiWRKYs to be evenly distributed across 15 chromosomes, with their duplication events suggesting that tandem duplication may have played a major role in LchiWRKY gene expansion model. A Ka/Ks analysis indicated that they mainly underwent purifying selection and distributed in the group IId. Motif analysis showed that LchiWRKYs contained 20 motifs, and different phylogenetic groups contained conserved motif. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that LchiWRKYs were mainly enriched in two categories, i.e., biological process and molecular function. Two group IIc members (LchiWRKY10 and LchiWRKY37) contain unique WRKY element sequence variants (WRKYGKK and WRKYGKS). Gene structure analysis showed that most LchiWRKYs possess 3 exons and two different types of introns: the R- and V-type which are both contained within the WRKY domain (WD). Additional promoter cis-element analysis indicated that 12 cis-elements that play different functions in environmental adaptability occur across all LchiWRKY groups. Heat, cold, and drought stress mainly induced the expression of group II and I LchiWRKYs, some of which had undergone gene duplication during evolution, and more than half of which had three exons. LchiWRKY33 mainly responded to cold stress and LchiWRKY25 mainly responded to heat stress, and LchiWRKY18 mainly responded to drought stress, which was almost 4-fold highly expressed, while 5 LchiWRKYs (LchiWRKY5, LchiWRKY23, LchiWRKY14, LchiWRKY27, and LchiWRKY36) responded equally three stresses with more than 6-fold expression. Subcellular localization analysis showed that all LchiWRKYs were localized in the nucleus, and subcellular localization experiments of LchiWRKY18 and 36 also showed that these two transcription factors were expressed in the nucleus. Conclusions This study shows that in Liriodendron chinense, several WRKY genes like LchiWRKY33, LchiWRKY25, and LchiWRKY18, respond to cold or heat or drought stress, suggesting that they may indeed play a role in regulating the tree’s response to such conditions. This information will prove a pivotal role in directing further studies on the function of the LchiWRKY gene family in abiotic stress response and provides a theoretical basis for popularizing afforestation in different regions of China.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Anna Suwińska ◽  
Piotr Wasąg ◽  
Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz ◽  
Marta Lenartowska ◽  
Robert Lenartowski

Abstract Background Pollen development in the anther in angiosperms depends on complicated cellular interactions associated with the expression of gametophytic and sporophytic genes which control fundamental processes during microsporo/gametogenesis, such as exo/endocytosis, intracellular transport, cell signaling, chromatin remodeling, and cell division. Most if not all of these cellular processes depend of local concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+). Work from our laboratory and others provide evidence that calreticulin (CRT), a prominent Ca2+-binding/buffering protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells, may be involved in pollen formation and function. Here, we show for the first time the expression pattern of the PhCRT1 gene and CRT accumulation in relation to exchangeable Ca2+ in Petunia hybrida developing anther, and discuss probable roles for this protein in the male gametophyte development. Results Using northern hybridization, western blot analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytochemistry, and potassium antimonate precipitation, we report that PhCRT1 is highly expressed in the anther and localization pattern of the CRT protein correlates with loosely bound (exchangeable) Ca2+ during the successive stages of microsporo/gametogenesis. We confirmed a permanent presence of both CRT and exchangeable Ca2+ in the germ line and tapetal cells, where these factors preferentially localized to the ER which is known to be the most effective intracellular Ca2+ store in eukaryotic cells. In addition, our immunoblots revealed a gradual increase in CRT level from the microsporocyte stage through the meiosis and the highest CRT level at the microspore stage, when both microspores and tapetal cells show extremely high secretory activity correlated with the biogenesis of the sporoderm. Conclusion Our present data provide support for a key role of CRT in developing anther of angiosperms – regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis during pollen grains formation. This Ca2+-buffering chaperone seems to be essential for pollen development and maturation since a high rate of protein synthesis and protein folding within the ER as well as intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis are strictly required during the multi-step process of pollen development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xueyuan Han ◽  
Xiaopeng Wei ◽  
Wenjing Lu ◽  
Qiong Wu ◽  
Linchun Mao ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Our previous study has demonstrated that the transcription of AchnKCS involved in suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) during the wound suberization of kiwifruit, but the regulatory mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Results Through subcellular localization analysis in this work, AchnbZIP29 and AchnMYB70 transcription factors were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase assay proved the transcriptional activation of AchnMYB70 and transcriptional suppression of AchnbZIP29 on AchnKCS promoter. Furthermore, the transcription level of AchnMYB70 was enhanced by ABA during wound suberization of kiwifruit, but AchnbZIP29 transcription was reduced by ABA. Conclusions Therefore, it was believed that ABA enhanced the transcriptional activation of AchnMYB70 on AchnKCS by increasing AchnMYB70 expression. On the contrary, ABA relieved the inhibitory effect of AchnbZIP29 on transcription of AchnKCS by inhibiting AchnbZIP29 expression. These results gave further insight into the molecular regulatory network of ABA in wound suberization of kiwifruit.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Evgenii Baiakhmetov ◽  
Daria Ryzhakova ◽  
Polina D. Gudkova ◽  
Marcin Nobis
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Liang ◽  
Yang Huang ◽  
Kang Chen ◽  
Xiangdong Kong ◽  
Maoteng Li

Abstract Background Brassica napus is an important agricultural species, improving stress resistance was one of the main breeding goals at present. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins which are involved in some biotic or abiotic stress responses. B. napus is susceptible to a variety of fungal diseases, so identify the BnLTPs and their expression in disease responses is very important. The common reference genome of B. napus does not contain all B. napus genes because of gene presence/absence variations between individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to search for candidate BnLTP genes in the B. napus pangenome. Results In the present study, the BnLTP genes were identified throughout the pangenome, and different BnLTP genes were presented among varieties. Totally, 246 BnLTP genes were identified and could be divided into five types (1, 2, C, D, and G). The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, and gene expression were analyzed. We also identified potential cis-elements that respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in the 2 kb upstream regions of all BnLTP genes. RNA sequencing analysis showed that the BnLTP genes were involved in the response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection. We identified 32 BnLTPs linked to blackleg resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL). Conclusion The identification and analysis of LTP genes in the B. napus pangenome could help to elucidate the function of BnLTP family members and provide new information for future molecular breeding in B. napus.


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