vitamin d
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2022 ◽  
Vol 372 ◽  
pp. 131325
Author(s):  
Suene V.S. Souza ◽  
Nuno Borges ◽  
Elsa F. Vieira

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Q. Alkhedaide ◽  
A. Mergani ◽  
A. A. Aldhahrani ◽  
A. Sabry ◽  
M. M. Soliman ◽  
...  

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (3) ◽  
pp. 203-208
Author(s):  
Hanan M. Fathi ◽  
Rozan E. Khalil ◽  
Marwa H. Abo Omirah ◽  
Ahmed Hamdy ◽  
Noha K. Abdelghaffar ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 011-022
Author(s):  
Richard Kabuyanga Kabuseba ◽  
Pierrot Lundimu Tugirimana ◽  
Jean Pierre Elongi Moyene ◽  
Xavier Kinenkinda Kalume ◽  
Jean-Baptiste Kakoma Sakatolo Zambèze

Background: The etiology of preeclampsia remains less well known. It is noted that low vitamin D levels are associated with a high risk of preeclampsia (PE). Calcium (Ca2+) levels during pregnancy appear to be involved in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Recent studies indicate that serum calcium levels may have a role in preeclampsia. Vitamin D promotes absorption of proper concentration of calcium in the blood which helps to lower blood pressure. The complications associated with calcium deficiency during a normal pregnancy are numerous and have not been extensively studied in Goma. Objective: To assess blood calcium levels (ionic and total) in preeclamptic women and to analyse the seasonal influence on preeclampsia in Goma. Method: A prospective case-control study (without matching) of 190 pregnant women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases for a case-control ratio of 1∶1 was conducted in six hospitals in Goma. Blood ionogram was performed by an automated system directly after blood sampling and vitamin D was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent method. Results: The mean ionised calcium level in preeclamptic woman was 1.24±0.16 mmol/L (0.48-1.59) compared to 1.27±0.17 mmol/L (0.88-2.30) in normal pregnant woman (p=0.214). A slight negative correlation between blood calcium and blood pressure was observed in pregnant women. Low vitamin D levels were associated with preeclampsia. Hypovitaminosis D in the preeclamptic group was more observed during the rainy season than during the dry season. Pregnancies complicated by PE were from fertilisations occurring during the rainy season while the dry season was characterised by a high admission of preeclamptics. Conclusion: The study found that preeclamptic women in Goma had hypocalcemia. There was also a weak negative correlation between blood pressure and serum calcium levels. The majority of preeclamptics were diagnosed during the dry season, while conception with a PE complication occurred during the rainy season. As this is a first study in this area for the Great Lakes region of Africa, a more in-depth study with a larger sample size is desired.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 85-89
Author(s):  
Gabriela Gama Freire Alberca ◽  
Ricardo Wesley Alberca

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Margot P. J. Visser ◽  
Anton S. M. Dofferhoff ◽  
Jody M. W. van den Ouweland ◽  
Henny van Daal ◽  
Cornelis Kramers ◽  
...  

BackgroundPathology during COVID-19 infection arises partly from an excessive inflammatory response with a key role for interleukin (IL)-6. Both vitamin D and K have been proposed as potential modulators of this process.MethodsWe assessed vitamin D and K status by measuring circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and desphospho-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein (dp-ucMGP), respectively in 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to inflammatory response, elastic fiber degradation and clinical outcomes.ResultsComparing good and poor disease outcomes of COVID-19 patients, vitamin 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different. IL-6 levels, however, were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome, compared to patients with good outcome (30.3 vs. 153.0 pg/mL; p &lt; 0.0001). Dp-ucMGP levels as biomarker of extrahepatic vitamin K status was associated with IL-6 levels (r = 0.35; p &lt; 0.0001). In contrast, 25(OH)D levels were only borderline statistically significant correlated with IL-6 (r = −0.14; p &lt;0.050). A significant association was also found between IL-6 and elastic fiber degradation. Contrary to vitamin K status, 25(OH)D did not correlate with elastic fiber degradation.ConclusionsDp-ucMGP associates with IL-6 as a central component of the destructive inflammatory processes in COVID-19. An intervention trial may provide insight whether vitamin K administration, either or not in combination with vitamin D, improves clinical outcome of COVID-19.


Author(s):  
Taylor L. T. Wherry ◽  
Rohana Dassanayake ◽  
Eduardo Casas ◽  
Shankumar Mooyottu ◽  
John P. Bannantine ◽  
...  

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant enteritis, targets intestinal macrophages. During infection, macrophages contribute to mucosal inflammation and development of granulomas in the small intestine which worsens as disease progression occurs. Vitamin D3 is an immunomodulatory steroid hormone with beneficial roles in host-pathogen interactions. Few studies have investigated immunologic roles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in cattle, particularly cattle infected with MAP. This study examined the effects of exogenous vitamin D3 on immune responses of monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from dairy cattle naturally infected with MAP. MDMs were pre-treated with ± 100 ng/ml 25(OH)D3 or ± 4 ng/ml 1,25(OH)2D3, then incubated 24 hrs with live MAP in the presence of their respective pre-treatment concentrations. Following treatment with either vitamin D3 analog, phagocytosis of MAP by MDMs was significantly greater in clinically infected animals, with a greater amount of live and dead bacteria. Clinical cows had significantly less CD40 surface expression on MDMs compared to subclinical cows and noninfected controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 also significantly increased nitrite production in MAP infected cows. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment played a key role in upregulating secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-12 while downregulating IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ. 1,25(OH)2D3 also negatively regulated transcripts of CYP24A1, CYP27B1, DEFB7, NOS2, and IL10. Results from this study demonstrate that vitamin D3 compounds, but mainly 1,25(OH)2D3, modulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses in dairy cattle infected with MAP, impacting the bacterial viability within the macrophage.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 956
Author(s):  
Izabela Szymczak-Pajor ◽  
Krystian Miazek ◽  
Anna Selmi ◽  
Aneta Balcerczyk ◽  
Agnieszka Śliwińska

Adipose tissue plays an important role in systemic metabolism via the secretion of adipocytokines and storing and releasing energy. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional and characterized by hypertrophied adipocytes, increased inflammation, hypoxia, and decreased angiogenesis. Although adipose tissue is one of the major stores of vitamin D, its deficiency is detective in obese subjects. In the presented review, we show how vitamin D regulates numerous processes in adipose tissue and how their dysregulation leads to metabolic disorders. The molecular response to vitamin D in adipose tissue affects not only energy metabolism and adipokine and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via the regulation of gene expression but also genes participating in antioxidant defense, adipocytes differentiation, and apoptosis. Thus, its deficiency disturbs adipocytokines secretion, metabolism, lipid storage, adipogenesis, thermogenesis, the regulation of inflammation, and oxidative stress balance. Restoring the proper functionality of adipose tissue in overweight or obese subjects is of particular importance in order to reduce the risk of developing obesity-related complications, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Taking into account the results of experimental studies, it seemed that vitamin D may be a remedy for adipose tissue dysfunction, but the results of the clinical trials are not consistent, as some of them show improvement and others no effect of this vitamin on metabolic and insulin resistance parameters. Therefore, further studies are required to evaluate the beneficial effects of vitamin D, especially in overweight and obese subjects, due to the presence of a volumetric dilution of this vitamin among them.


Author(s):  
Prajwal Shrestha ◽  
Rakesh Deepak ◽  
Ashu Seith Bhalla ◽  
Yashdeep Gupta ◽  
Kapil Sikka ◽  
...  

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