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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
N. N. H. Shosha ◽  
S. Elmasry ◽  
M. Moawad ◽  
S. H. Ismail ◽  
M. Elsayed

Abstract Nanoparticles are considered viable options in the treatment of cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetite folate core shell (MFCS) on leukemic and hepatocarcinoma cell cultures as well as their effect on the animal model of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Through current study nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized by various techniques, and their properties were studied to confirm their nanostructure. Invivo study, nanoparticles were evaluated to inspect their cytotoxic activity against SNU-182 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human leukemia), and THLE2 (human normal epithelial liver) cells via MTT test. Apoptotic signaling proteins Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 expression were inspected through RT-PCR method. A cytotoxic effect of MNPs and MFCS was detected in previous cell cultures. Moreover, the apoptosis was identified through significant up-regulation of caspase-3, with Bcl-2 down-regulation. Invitro study, AML was induced in rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea followed by oral treatment with MNPS and MFCS. Biochemical indices such as aspartate and alanine amino transferases, and lactate dehydrogenase activities, uric acid, complete blood count, and Beta -2-microglubulin were assessed in serum. Immunophenotyping for CD34 and CD38 detection was performed. Liver, kidney, and bone marrow were microscopically examined. Bcl-2 promoter methylation, and mRNA levels were examined. Although, both MNPs and MFCS depict amelioration in biochemical parameters, MFCS alleviated them toward normal control. Anticancer activity of MNPs and MFCS was approved especially for AML. Whenever, administration of MFCS was more effective than MNPs. The present work is one of few studies used MFCS as anticancer agent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Meijun Li ◽  
Wei Tang ◽  
Peng Liao ◽  
Yunhu Li

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of different recommended levels of Cu and Zn on antioxidant capacity, tissue mineral status, minerals excretion, meat quality, digestive enzyme activity, and metal transporters in finishing pigs. A total of 120 pigs (with an average initial body weight (BW) of 70.0 ± 2.1 kg) were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) basal diet without added Cu or Zn (control), (2) basal diet+35 mg cupreous N-carbamylglutamate chelate (NCG-Cu) +150 mg zinc-methionine chelate (Zn-Met) (AC), (3) basal diet + 3.0 mg of NCG-Cu + 43 mg Zn-Met (CN), and (4) basal diet + 3.5 mg NCG-Cu + 50 mg Zn-Met (NRC100). Pig growth performance was not affected by the level of Cu or Zn. Among the four treatments, the AC treatment had the highest concentration (P < 0.05) of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pigs fed the AC diet had the highest (P < 0.05) liver Zn, fecal Cu, and fecal Zn among the four treatments. The protein levels of trypsin and aminopeptidase N (APN) in the intestinal mucosa showed their highest levels (P < 0.05) in the NRC100 and AC treatments. The mRNA levels of trypsinogen and APN were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the AC, CN, and NRC100 treatments compared with the control. The mRNA levels for the Zn transporter genes SLC30A1 (ZnT1) and SLC30A2 (ZnT2) were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the AC treatment, and the mRNA levels for SLC39A4 (ZIP4) and metallothionein 1 (MT) in the AC, CN, and NRC100 treatments were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) compared with the control. Meat quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the different recommended levels of Cu and Zn. These results indicated that the supplemental Cu and Zn levels routinely used in AC diets in Chinese commercial feed enterprises should be reduced.

2022 ◽  
pp. 096452842110703
Xiao-xiao Liu ◽  
Li-zhi Zhang ◽  
Hai-hua Zhang ◽  
Lan-feng Lai ◽  
Yi-qiao Wang ◽  

Background and aim: Disordered hepatic energy metabolism is found in obese rats with insulin resistance (IR). There are insufficient experimental studies of electroacupuncture (EA) for IR and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to probe the effect of EA on disordered hepatic energy metabolism and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70-kDa (p70S6K) signaling pathway. Methods: Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were randomly divided into three groups: EA group receiving EA treatment; Pi group receiving pioglitazone gavage; and ZF group remaining untreated (n = 8 per group). Inbred non-insulin-resistant Zucker lean rats formed an (untreated) healthy control group (ZL, n = 8). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), C-peptide, C-reactive protein (CRP) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices were measured. Hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) staining was used to investigate the liver morphologically. The mitochondrial structure of hepatocytes was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Western blotting was adopted to determine protein expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), mTOR, mTORC1, AMPK, tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and p70S6K, and their phosphorylation. RT-PCR was used to quantify IRS-1, mTOR, mTORC1, AMPK and p70S6K mRNA levels. Results: Compared with the ZF group, FPG, FINS, C-peptide, CRP and HOMA-IR levels were significantly reduced in the EA group ( p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Evaluation of histopathology showed improvement in liver appearances following EA. Phosphorylation levels of AMPK, mTOR and TSC2 decreased, and IRS-1 and p70S6K increased, in hepatocytes of the ZF group, while these negative effects appeared to be alleviated by EA. Conclusions: EA can effectively ameliorate IR and regulate energy metabolism in the ZDF rat model. AMPK/mTORC1/p70S6K and related molecules may represent a potential mechanism of action underlying these effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 940
René St-Arnaud ◽  
Martin Pellicelli ◽  
Mahmoud Ismail ◽  
Alice Arabian ◽  
Toghrul Jafarov ◽  

PTH induces phosphorylation of the transcriptional coregulator NACA on serine 99 through Gαs and PKA. This leads to nuclear translocation of NACA and expression of the target gene Lrp6, encoding a coreceptor of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) necessary for full anabolic response to intermittent PTH (iPTH) treatment. We hypothesized that maintaining enough functional PTH1R/LRP6 coreceptor complexes at the plasma membrane through NACA-dependent Lrp6 transcription is important to ensure maximal response to iPTH. To test this model, we generated compound heterozygous mice in which one allele each of Naca and Lrp6 is inactivated in osteoblasts and osteocytes, using a knock-in strain with a Naca99 Ser-to-Ala mutation and an Lrp6 floxed strain (test genotype: Naca99S/A; Lrp6+/fl;OCN-Cre). Four-month-old females were injected with vehicle or 100 μg/kg PTH(1-34) once daily, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Control mice showed significant increases in vertebral trabecular bone mass and biomechanical properties that were abolished in compound heterozygotes. Lrp6 expression was reduced in compound heterozygotes vs. controls. The iPTH treatment increased Alpl and Col1a1 mRNA levels in the control but not in the test group. These results confirm that NACA and LRP6 form part of a common genetic pathway that is necessary for the full anabolic effect of iPTH.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Ke-Jia Cheng ◽  
Min-Li Zhou ◽  
Yong-Cai Liu ◽  
Shui-Hong Zhou

Background. The Chinese subtype of CRSwNP may have a unique pathogenesis. This study was designed to seek the role of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway and IL-17A in CRSwNP. Methods. The total IgE, ECP, and IL-17A levels were determined by UniCAP100 and ELISA. The activity of MPO was detected by the biochemical techniques. The protein expressions of HIF-1α, p-Akt, and PI3K were detected by the WB method. HIF-1α and IL-17A mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR. Results. The CRSwNP group showed significantly elevated MPO activity, PI3K, p-AKT protein, HIF-1α, and IL-17A mRNA levels in nasal polyps. Stimulated by the TNF-α, the PI3K, p-AKT, HIF-1α, and IL-17A levels significantly elevated in the fibroblasts. Inhibited by the Wortmannin, those indicators significantly declined in the fibroblasts. Conclusion. The PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway played a role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. The elevated IL-17A level might be responsible for the neutrophilic inflammation in CRSwNP. The PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway might regulate the IL-17A-related inflammation in CRSwNP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Leyi Zhang ◽  
Chenglong Lu ◽  
Li Kang ◽  
Yingji Li ◽  
Wenjing Tang ◽  

Abstract Background Astrocytic activation might play a significant role in the central sensitization of chronic migraine (CM). However, the temporal characteristics of the astrocytic activation in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and the molecular mechanism under the process remain not fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the duration and levels change of astrocytic activation and to explore the correlation between astrocytic activation and the levels change of cytokines release. Methods We used a mice model induced by recurrent dural infusion of inflammatory soup (IS). The variation with time of IS-induced mechanical thresholds in the periorbital and hind paw plantar regions were evaluated using the von Frey filaments test. We detected the expression profile of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the TNC through immunofluorescence staining and western blot assay. We also investigated the variation with time of the transcriptional levels of GFAP and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) through RNAscope in situ hybridization analysis. Then, we detected the variation with time of cytokines levels in the TNC tissue extraction and serum, including c-c motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), c-c motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), c-c motif chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7), c-c motif chemokine ligand 12 (CCL12), c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Results Recurrent IS infusion resulted in cutaneous allodynia in both the periorbital region and hind paw plantar, ranging from 5 d (after the second IS infusion) to 47 d (28 d after the last infusion) and 5 d to 26 d (7 d after the last infusion), respectively. The protein levels of GFAP and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of GFAP and Iba1 significantly increased and sustained from 20 d to 47 d (1 d to 28 d after the last infusion), which was associated with the temporal characteristics of astrocytic activation in the TNC. The CCL7 levels in the TNC decreased from 20 d to 47 d. But the CCL7 levels in serum only decreased on 20 d (1 d after the last infusion). The CCL12 levels in the TNC decreased on 22 d (3 d after the last infusion) and 33 d (14 d after the last infusion). In serum, the CCL12 levels only decreased on 22 d. The IL-10 levels in the TNC increased on 20 d. Conclusions Our results indicate that the astrocytic activation generated and sustained in the IS-induced mice model from 1 d to 28 d after the last infusion and may contribute to the pathology through modulating CCL7, CCL12, and IL-10 release.

2022 ◽  
Kathleen A Trychta ◽  
Brandon K Harvey

Drugs of abuse can cause local and systemic hyperthermia, a known trigger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Another trigger of ER stress and UPR is ER calcium depletion which causes ER exodosis, the secretion of ER resident proteins. Club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) can create hyperthermic conditions in the brain and cause toxicity that is affected by the environmental temperature and the presence of other drugs, such as caffeine. Here we examine the secretion of ER resident proteins and activation of the UPR under combined exposure to MDMA and caffeine in a cellular model of hyperthermia. We show that hyperthermia triggers the secretion of normally ER resident proteins and that this aberrant protein secretion is potentiated by the presence of MDMA, caffeine, or a combination of the two drugs. Hyperthermia activates the UPR but the addition of MDMA or caffeine does not alter canonical UPR gene expression despite the drug effects on ER exodosis of UPR-related proteins. One exception was increased BiP/Grp78 mRNA levels in MDMA-treated cells exposed to hyperthermia. These findings suggest that club drug use under hyperthermic conditions exacerbates disruption of ER proteostasis contributing to cellular toxicity.

Immuno ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 104-117
Dennis Awuah ◽  
Alisa Ruisinger ◽  
Meshal Alobaid ◽  
Chidimma Mbadugha ◽  
Amir M. Ghaemmaghami

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), where it exerts anti-inflammatory responses against TLR4-induced inflammation. Recently, microRNA-511 (miR-511) has also emerged as a key player in controlling TLR4-mediated signalling and in regulating the function of DCs. Interestingly, PPARγ has been previously highlighted as a putative target of miR-511 activity; however, the link between miR-511 and PPARγ and its influence on human DC function within the context of LPS-induced inflammatory responses is unknown. Using a selection of miR-511-3p-specific inhibitors and mimics, we demonstrate for the first time that knockdown or overexpression of miR-511-3p inversely correlates with PPARγ mRNA levels and affects its transcriptional activity following treatment with rosiglitazone (RSG; PPARγ agonist), in the presence or absence of LPS. Additionally, we show that PPARγ-mediated suppression of DC activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in miR-511-3p knockdown DCs is abrogated following overexpression of miR-511-3p. Lastly, PPARγ activation suppressed LPS-mediated induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in DCs, most likely due to changes in miR-511-3p expression. Our data thus suggests that PPARγ-induced modulation of DC phenotype and function is influenced by miR-511-3p expression, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target against inflammatory diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shoukai Yu

The spindle and kinetochore-associated complex is composed of three members: SKA1, SKA2, and SKA3. It is necessary for stabilizing spindle microtubules attaching to kinetochore (KT) in the middle stage of mitosis. The SKA complex is associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. However, the role of SKA complex in rare malignant diseases, such as gliomas, has not been fully investigated. We investigated several databases, including Oncomine, UALCAN, and cBioPortal to explore the expression profile and prognostic significance of SKA complex in patients with gliomas. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways were used to analyze the potential enriched pathways. The genes co-expressed with SKA complex were identified and used for developing a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using the STRING database. We found a significant overexpression of the mRNA levels of SKA1, SKA2, and SKA3 in patients with glioma patients. Higher expression of SKA1 and SKA3, but not SKA2, was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival of patients with glioma. In glioma, SKA complex was found to be involved in nuclear division, chromosome segregation, and DNA replication. The results of PPI network identified 10 hub genes (CCNB2, UBE2C, BUB1B, TPX2, CCNA2, CCNB1, MELK, TOP2A, PBK, and KIF11), all of which were overexpressed and negatively associated with prognosis of patients with glioma. In conclusion, our study sheds new insights into the biological role and prognostic significance of SKA complex in glioma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Beatrice E. Gee ◽  
Andrea Pearson ◽  
Iris Buchanan-Perry ◽  
Roger P. Simon ◽  
David R. Archer ◽  

Whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing was performed to quantify RNA expression changes in whole blood samples collected from steady state sickle cell anemia (SCA) and control subjects. Pediatric SCA and control subjects were recruited from Atlanta (GA)—based hospital(s) systems and consented for RNA sequencing. RNA sequencing was performed on an Ion Torrent S5 sequencer, using the Ion Total RNA-seq v2 protocol. Data were aligned to the hg19 reference genome and analyzed in the Partek Genomics studio package (v7.0). 223 genes were differentially expressed between SCA and controls (± 1.5 fold change FDR p &lt; 0.001) and 441 genes show differential transcript expression (± 1.5 fold FDR p &lt; 0.001). Differentially expressed RNA are enriched for hemoglobin associated genes and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway genes. Further analysis shows higher gamma globin gene expression in SCA (33-fold HBG1 and 49-fold HBG2, both FDR p &lt; 0.05), which did not correlate with hemoglobin F protein levels. eQTL analysis identified SNPs in novel non-coding RNA RYR2 gene as having a potential regulatory role in HBG1 and HBG2 expression levels. Gene expression correlation identified JHDM1D-AS1(KDM7A-DT), a non-coding RNA associated with angiogenesis, enhanced GATA1 and decreased JAK-STAT signaling to correlate with HBG1 and HBG2 mRNA levels. These data suggest novel regulatory mechanisms for fetal hemoglobin regulation, which may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for SCA.

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