inflammatory syndrome
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
Young Kyun Choi ◽  
Jae Young Moon ◽  
Jungok Kim ◽  
In Seol Yoo ◽  
Geun-Yong Kwon ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
M. Sansone ◽  
M. Studahl ◽  
S. Berg ◽  
M. Gisslén ◽  
N. Sundell

Kiran More ◽  
Sheila Aiyer ◽  
Ashish Goti ◽  
Manan Parikh ◽  
Samir Sheikh ◽  

Larissa Marques Santana ◽  
Larissa de Aguiar Martins ◽  
Marcos Rosa-Júnior

Abstract Introduction There are some inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic diseases affecting the extrinsic orbital musculature (EOM) that present with pain, decreased visual acuity, and proptosis. Imaging is fundamental to the differential diagnoses of these diseases with similar clinical presentations. The present case series report has as main objective to illustrate and discuss the main pathologies that affect the orbit. Material and methods The present series of cases discusses the main pathologies that can affect the extraocular musculature that can be characterized by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using cases from our institution. Results and Discussion The present study compiled several cases of ophthalmopathy from our institution to illustrate and address some of these pathologies, such as orbital lymphoma, Grave disease, metastases, periorbital cellulitis, and idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome. The diseases are discussed according to the presentation of clinical cases with emphasis on the main imaging findings of each pathology. Conclusion Computed tomography and MRI can help in the diagnosis and follow-up of the diseases that affect the EOM. We must be conversant with the main characteristics of the pathologies presented in the present case series report, since such findings together with clinical data can confirm the diagnosis of these diseases or at least help to narrow the differential diagnoses.

Nida Siddiqui ◽  
Brett Stephen Mansfield ◽  
Nine-Paula Olmesdahl ◽  
Peter Swart ◽  
Jeremy Nel

Paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) is caused by restored immunity to specific antigens, resulting in worsening of a pre-existing infection. Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is commonly noted in HIV-positive individuals but ART alone is usually sufficient to bring about resolution. We present a rare case of severe MC-IRIS that worsened despite immune reconstitution.

2022 ◽  
Catherine E. Naber ◽  
Neil D. Fernandes ◽  
Manuella Lahoud-Rahme ◽  
Danielle Doucette ◽  
Allan M. Goldstein ◽  

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
An-Che Cheng ◽  
Te-Yu Lin ◽  
Ning-Chi Wang

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can restore protective immune responses against opportunistic infections (OIs) and reduce mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some patients treated with ART may develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related IRIS most commonly presents as lymphadenitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and deteriorating lung infiltrates. However, neurological presentations of IRIS induced by MAC have been rarely described. We report the case of a 31-year-old man with an HIV infection. He developed productive cough and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) three months after the initiation of ART. He experienced an excellent virological and immunological response. Sputum culture grew MAC. The patient was diagnosed with MAC-related IRIS presenting as CIDP, based on his history and laboratory, radiologic, and electrophysiological findings. Results: Neurological symptoms improved after plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CIDP due to MAC-related IRIS. Clinicians should consider MAC-related IRIS in the differential diagnosis of CIDP in patients with HIV infections following the initiation of ART.

2022 ◽  
Camilla Astley ◽  
Maria Fernanda Badue ◽  
Marcos Santos Lima ◽  
Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel ◽  
Camila G. Carneiro ◽  

Abstract Objective To perform an in-depth assessment of cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes in a series of 5 post discharged multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) survivors. Methods Data were collected ≅1.9 month after hospital discharge at a tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. All patients (7-18 years; 3 females) fulfilled the MIS-C diagnosis according to CDC. The battery of tests included: 13 N-ammonia PET-CT imaging, standard echocardiography, brachial flow-mediated dilation using a Doppler ultrasound, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and blood markers. Results Upon PET-CT scans, two patients exhibited severe perfusion defect developed in the left ventricular cavity suggesting extensive myocardial ischemia, and one patient showed persistent mild pericardial effusion. Other two patients had endothelial dysfunction. All patients exhibited abnormal cardiopulmonary reserve during exercise (e.g., low VO2peak). Three patients had abnormal values for D-dimer and fibrinogen. Conclusion This study reveals novel pathological findings in MIS-C patients, which may help optimize treatment protocols in this condition.

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