Introduction There are some inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic diseases affecting the extrinsic orbital musculature (EOM) that present with pain, decreased visual acuity, and proptosis. Imaging is fundamental to the differential diagnoses of these diseases with similar clinical presentations. The present case series report has as main objective to illustrate and discuss the main pathologies that affect the orbit.
Material and methods The present series of cases discusses the main pathologies that can affect the extraocular musculature that can be characterized by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using cases from our institution.
Results and Discussion The present study compiled several cases of ophthalmopathy from our institution to illustrate and address some of these pathologies, such as orbital lymphoma, Grave disease, metastases, periorbital cellulitis, and idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome. The diseases are discussed according to the presentation of clinical cases with emphasis on the main imaging findings of each pathology.
Conclusion Computed tomography and MRI can help in the diagnosis and follow-up of the diseases that affect the EOM. We must be conversant with the main characteristics of the pathologies presented in the present case series report, since such findings together with clinical data can confirm the diagnosis of these diseases or at least help to narrow the differential diagnoses.
AbstractAtrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors and may manifest with neurological symptoms in ∼ 30% of cases. Cerebral ischemia, aneurysmal formation, and extravascular metastases are mechanisms that lead to these neurological manifestations. Perilesional changes on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help in the diagnosis of myxomatous aneurysms, which are usually located in the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) circulation territories. Careful resection of the cardiac lesion is essential for preventing embolism. However, treatment of myxomatous aneurysms is controversial due to the limited understanding of the natural history of this condition. Treatment may include clinical observation in asymptomatic patients, surgical resection, endovascular approaches, adjuvant chemotherapy, and low-dose radiation therapy. We present one case of a female patient with myxomatous aneurysm secondary to an atrial myxoma who presented with neurological symptoms and another case of a female patient who developed neurological symptoms after initial surgical treatment of the primary lesion. Lesion growth rate, topography, morphology, and the patient's clinical condition must be considered when choosing a therapeutical method. Further clinical studies are needed to achieve a better understanding and treatment of this disease.
Introduction Vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, causing high morbidity and mortality. There is no effective and consistent way to prevent or treat cerebral vasospasm capable of altering the morbidity and mortality of this complication. Animal and human studies have attempted to show improvement in aneurysmal vasospasm. Some sought their prevention; others, the treatment of already installed vasospasm. Some achieved only angiographic improvement without clinical correlation, others achieved both, but with ephemeral duration or at the expense of very harmful associated effects. Endovascular techniques allow immediate and aggressive treatment of cerebral vasospasm and include methods such as mechanical and chemical angioplasty. These methods have risks and benefits.
Objectives To analyze the results of chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin (GTN). In addition, to perform a comprehensive review and analysis of aneurysmal vasospasm.
Methods We describe our series of 77 patients treated for 8 years with angioplasty for vasospasm, either mechanical (with balloon), chemical (with GTN) or both.
Results Eleven patients received only balloon; 37 received only GTN; 29 received both. Forty-four patients (70.1%) evolved with delayed cerebral ischemia and 19 died (mortality of 24.7%). Two deaths were causally related to the rupture of the vessel by the balloon. The only predictors of poor outcome were the need for external ventricular drainage in the first hours of admission, and isolated mechanical angioplasty.
Conclusions Balloon angioplasty has excellent results, but it is restricted to proximal vessels and is not without complications. Chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin has reasonable but short-lived results and further research is needed about it. It is restricted to vasospasm angioplasties only in hospitals, like ours, where better and more potent vasodilator agents are not available.
Introduction Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a tumor originated from the epithelium of the glandular excretory ducts and has highly variable biological potential. It is the most prevalent cancer of the salivary glands. The present report aims to describe a case of nasal mucoepidermoid carcinoma that developed after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) treatment of a recurrent pituitary macroadenoma.
Case Report Male patient, 62 years old, presented with recurrent nasal epistaxis on the right, associated with intense pulsatile headache, visual analogical scale (VAS) 10/10, with improvement only with the use of opioids and morphine. After undergoing oncological screening and study by imaging exams, the presence of an expansive seal lesion with suprasellar extension was seen, involving the medial wall of the cavernous segment of the right carotid artery and the anterior cerebral artery, as well as the presence of a new expansive lesion in the right nasal cavity, with ethmoid bone invasion superiorly and medial orbit wall invasion laterally, compressing the ipsilateral optic nerve canal.
Discussion Sinonasal neoplasms represent a small portion of all malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, accounting for < 5% of these neoplasms. The development of MEC involves risk factors such as occupational issues, history of trauma and surgery involving the nasal area, and radiation exposure, as in previous RT.
Conclusion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasia and can be associated with RT treatment, as used in cases of recurrent pituitary macroadenoma. In general, surgical resection to obtain free margins of neoplastic tissue is the aimed treatment, seeking better prognosis.
AbstractThe present article focuses on the analysis of the nasal cavity's anatomy succinctly and descriptively. This essay was carried out through a bibliographic review, directed to the detailed anatomy of the nasal cavity, and the structures that form its sinuses. We have identified the need for more studies directed to the related anatomical area so that the improved knowledge of this region ensures a nasoendoscopic treatment with better effectiveness and no complications.
AbstractBacterial meningitis remains a public health problem. One of the complications of this group of diseases is cerebral ischemia, an important indicator of severity and an independent predictor of poor prognosis. It is already known that, in many cases, pathological aggressiveness is the result of brain abnormalities in individuals with mental illnesses. The indication of neurosurgeries for psychiatric disorders (NPDs) relies on numerous studies based on scientific evidence that correlate psychiatric illnesses with the limbic system and the pathophysiology of emotions. The development of sophisticated stereotactic target localization techniques, brain atlases, and imaging methods made stereotaxis possible, a procedure that increased the precision of neurosurgery and reduced brain damage. Nowadays, multiple targets can be treated during NPD, according to the particular characteristics of the patient. Moreover, the combination of lesions leads to more significant improvements compared with isolated procedures. The present study aimed to report the rare case of a patient with a history of bacterial meningitis who developed stroke and chronic pathological aggressiveness refractory to clinical treatment and underwent ablation using the multitarget stereotactic technique.
AbstractPrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare subtype of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that accounts for 4% of newly diagnosed central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most primary lymphomas of the central nervous system are of the subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, which have highly aggressive behavior and may involve the brain, leptomeninges, eyes or spinal cord without evidence of systemic disease. Primary CNS lymphomas are very rare in immunocompetent patients, but their rates are increasing. So far, only 11 primary Gasser ganglion lymphomas have been reported, with an incidence of 2.5 cases per 30,000,000 inhabitants. However, B cell lymphomas of the marginal zone of the Gasserian ganglion have been very rarely reported. We report here a clinical presentation characteristic of B cell lymphoma of the marginal zone of the Gasser ganglion in an immunocompetent patient who was treated with surgery and radiotherapy, evolving with improvement of symptoms and without recurrence in 3 months of follow-up.
AbstractParagangliomas of the cauda equina are tumors of rare incidence, with ∼ 220 cases described in the world literature. They are benign lesions, grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), whose definitive diagnosis can only be made by immunohistochemical analysis. Its neuroendocrine nature is evidenced by the presence of chromogranin. The relevance of reporting this case is because paragangliomas of the cauda equina should be included among the differential diagnoses of intradural and extramedullary tumors, and especially because they can cause perioperative and intraoperative hypertensive crises by adrenergic discharge.The present study presents the case of a 36-year-old male patient diagnosed with a lumbar spine tumor located in the central spinal canal that presented as cauda equina syndrome involving 4 months of bilateral sciatica, paraparesis, urinary and fecal retention. The diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for chromogranin after microsurgical resection of the tumor.
Introduction Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a major healthcare concern. The use of statin to reduce serum cholesterol has shown evidence to reduce cardiovascular risk in various diseases, but the impact on IA has not been described. This study aims to determine whether statin use, and serum cholesterol levels interfere with outcomes after IA event.
Methods A cohort of patients with IA was analyzed. Patients social and demographics data were collected. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) score after 6 months of follow-up was the endpoint. The data regarding statins use, presence or not of atherosclerotic plaque in radiological images and serum cholesterol of 35 patients were included in our study. Linear regression models were used to determine the influence of those 6 variables in the clinical outcome.
Results The prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque, high cholesterol and use of statins was 34.3%, 48.5%, and 14.2%, respectively. Statins and serum cholesterol did not impact the overall outcome, measured by mRS after 6 months (p > 0.05), but did show different tendencies when separated by IA rupture status. Serum cholesterol shows an important association with rupture of aneurysm (p = 0.0382). High cholesterol and use of statins show a tendency for worse outcome with ruptured aneurysm, and the opposite is true for unruptured aneurysm. The presence of atherosclerotic plaques was not related with worse outcomes.
Conclusions Multiple and opposite mechanisms might be involved in the pathophysiology of IA. Ruptured aneurysms are associated with higher levels of serum cholesterol. Serum cholesterol and statins use were not correlated with worse outcomes, but further studies are important to clarify these relationships.
Introduction Fluorescence guidance with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a safe and reliable tool in total gross resection of intracranial tumors, especially malignant gliomas and cases of metastasis. In the present retrospective study, we have analyzed 5-ALA-induced fluorescence findings in different central nervous system (CNS) lesions to expand the indications of its use in differential diagnoses.
Objectives To describe the indications and results of 5-ALA fluorescence in a series of 255 cases.
Methods In 255 consecutive cases, we recorded age, gender, intraoperative 5-ALA fluorescence tumor response, and 5-ALA postresection status, as well the complications related to the method. Postresection was classified as ‘5-ALA free’ or ‘5-ALA residual’. The diagnosis of histopathological tumor was established according to the current classification of the World Health Organization (WHO).
Results There were 195 (76.4%) 5-ALA positive cases, 124 (63.5%) of whom underwent the ‘5-ALA free’ resection. The findings in the positive cases were: 135 gliomas of all grades; 19 meningiomas; 4 hemangioblastomas; 1 solitary fibrous tumor; 27 metastases; 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas; 2 cases of radionecrosis; 1 inflammatory disease; 2 cases of gliosis; 1 cysticercosis; and 1 immunoglobulin G4-related disease.
Conclusion Fluorescence with 5-ALA can be observed in lesions other than malignant gliomas or metastases, including meningiomas, hemangioblastomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, and lymphomas. Although there is need for further evidence for the use of 5-ALA beyond high-grade gliomas, it may be a safe and reliable tool to improve resection in positive tumors or to guide the histopathologic analysis in biopsies.