Membrane Oxygenation
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257449
Yeuni Yu ◽  
Yun Hak Kim ◽  
Woo Hyun Cho ◽  
Bong Soo Son ◽  
Hye Ju Yeo

Despite the formation of biofilms on catheters for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), some patients do not show bacteremia. To elucidate the specific linkage between biofilms and bacteremia in patients with ECMO, an improved understanding of the microbial community within catheter biofilms is necessary. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the biofilm microbiome of ECMO catheters from adults with (n = 6) and without (n = 15) bacteremia. The microbiomes of the catheter biofilms were evaluated by profiling the V3 and V4 regions of bacterial 16s rRNA genes using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. In total, 2,548,172 reads, with an average of 121,341 reads per sample, were generated. Although alpha diversity was slightly higher in the non-bacteremic group, the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, there was no difference in beta diversity between the two groups. We found 367 different genera, of which 8 were present in all samples regardless of group; Limnohabitans, Flavobacterium, Delftia, Massilia, Bacillus, Candidatus, Xiphinematobacter, and CL0-1 showed an abundance of more than 1% in the sample. In particular, Arthrobacter, SMB53, Neisseria, Ortrobactrum, Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia, Deefgae, Dyella, Paracoccus, and Pedobacter were highly abundant in the bacteremic group. Network analysis indicated that the microbiome of the bacteremic group was more complex than that of the non-bacteremic group. Flavobacterium and CL0.1, which were abundant in the bacteremic group, were considered important genera because they connected different subnetworks. Biofilm characteristics in ECMO catheters varied according to the presence or absence of bacteremia. There were no significant differences in diversity between the two groups, but there were significant differences in the community composition of the biofilms. The biofilm-associated community was dynamic, with the bacteremic group showing very complex network connections within the microbiome.

Patrick Malcolm Siegel ◽  
Julia Chalupsky ◽  
Christoph B. Olivier ◽  
István Bojti ◽  
Jan-Steffen Pooth ◽  

AbstractExtracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for patients with cardiopulmonary failure and is associated with severe bleeding and poor outcome. Platelet dysfunction may be a contributing factor. The aim of this prospective observational study was to characterize platelet dysfunction and its relation to outcome in ECMO patients. Blood was sampled from thirty ECMO patients at three timepoints. Expression of CD62P, CD63, activated GPIIb/IIIa, GPVI, GPIbα and formation platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA) were analyzed at rest and in response to stimulation. Delta granule storage-pool deficiency and secretion defects were also investigated. Fifteen healthy volunteers and ten patients with coronary artery disease served as controls. Results were also compared between survivors and non-survivors. Compared to controls, expression of platelet surface markers, delta granule secretion and formation of PLA was reduced, particularly in response to stimulation. Baseline CD63 expression was higher and activated GPIIb/IIIa expression in response to stimulation was lower in non-survivors on day 1 of ECMO. Logistic regression analysis revealed that these markers were associated with mortality. In conclusion, platelets from ECMO patients are severely dysfunctional predisposing patients to bleeding complications and poor outcome. Platelet dysfunction on day 1 of ECMO detected by the platelet surface markers CD63 and activated GPIIb/IIIa is associated with mortality. CD63 and activated GPIIb/IIIa may therefore serve as novel prognostic biomarkers, but future studies are required to determine their true potential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xuyan Li ◽  
Ming Hu ◽  
Ruiqiang Zheng ◽  
Yishan Wang ◽  
Hanyujie Kang ◽  

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rapidly evolving therapy for acute lung and/or heart failure. However, the information on the application of ECMO in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited, such as the initiation time. Especially in the period and regions of ECMO instrument shortage, not all the listed patients could be treated with ECMO in time. This study aimed to investigate and clarify the timing of ECMO initiation related to the outcomes of severe patients with COVID-19. The results show that ECMO should be initiated within 24 h after the criteria are met.Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter cohort study, we enrolled all ECMO patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the three hospitals between December 29, 2019 and April 5, 2020. Data on the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, clinical course, treatments, complications, and outcomes were collected. The primary outcomes were successful ECMO weaning rate and 60-day mortality after ECMO. Successful weaning from ECMO means that the condition of patients improved with adequate oxygenation and gas exchange, as shown by the vital signs, blood gases, and chest X-ray, and the patient was weaned from ECMO for at least 48 h.Results: A total of 31 patients were included in the analysis. The 60-day mortality rate after ECMO was 71%, and the ECMO weaning rate was 26%. Patients were divided into a delayed ECMO group [3 (interquartile range (IQR), 2–5) days] and an early ECMO group [0.5 (IQR, 0–1) days] based on the time between meeting the ECMO criteria and ECMO initiation. In this study, 14 and 17 patients were included in the early and delayed treatment groups, respectively. Early initiation of ECMO was associated with decreased 60-day mortality after ECMO (50 vs. 88%, P = 0.044) and an increased ECMO weaning rate (50 vs. 6%, P = 0.011).Conclusions: In ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19, delayed initiation of ECMO is a risk factor associated with a poorer outcome.Trial Registration: Clinical trial submission: March 19, 2020. Registry name: A medical records-based study for the clinical application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Chinese Clinical Trial Registry:,identifier:~ChiCTR2000030947.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Prakadeshwari Rajapreyar ◽  
Lauren Castaneda ◽  
Nathan E. Thompson ◽  
Tara L. Petersen ◽  
Sheila J. Hanson

The effect of positive fluid balance (FB) on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) outcomes in pediatric patients remains unknown. We sought to evaluate if positive FB in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure necessitating ECMO was associated with increased morbidity or mortality. This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of data from the deidentified PEDiatric ECMO Outcomes Registry (PEDECOR). Patients entered into the database from 2014 to 2017, who received ECMO support, were included. A total of 168 subjects met the study criteria. Univariate analysis showed no significant difference in total FB on ECMO days 1–5 between survivors and non-survivors [median 90 ml/kg (IQR 18–208.5) for survivors vs. median 139.7 ml/kg (IQR 11.2–300.6) for non-survivors, p = 0.334]. There was also no difference in total FB on ECMO days 1–5 in patients with no change in functional outcome as reflected by the Pediatric Outcome Performance Category (POPC) score vs. those who had worsening in POPC score ≥2 at hospital discharge [median 98 ml/kg (IQR 18–267) vs. median 130 ml/kg (IQR 13–252), p = 0.91]. Subjects that required 50 ml/kg or more of blood products over the initial 5 days of ECMO support had an increased rate of mortality with an odds ratio of 5.8 (95% confidence interval of 2.7–12.3; p = 0.048). Our study showed no association of the noted FB with survival after ECMO cannulation. This FB trend was also not associated with POPC at hospital discharge, MV duration, or ECMO duration. The amount of blood product administered was found to be a significant predictor of mortality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jakub Smiechowicz ◽  
Barbara Barteczko-Grajek ◽  
Barbara Adamik ◽  
Jozef Bojko ◽  
Waldemar Gozdzik ◽  

Abstract Background In Poland, little is known about the most serious cases of influenza that need admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU), as well as the use of extracorporeal respiratory support. Methods This was an electronic survey comprising ICUs in two administrative regions of Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the number of influenza patients with respiratory failure admitted to the ICU in the autumn–winter season of 2018/2019. Furthermore, respiratory support, outcome and other pathogens detected in the airways were investigated. Results Influenza infection was confirmed in 76 patients. The A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was the most common. 34 patients died (44.7%). The median age was 62 years, the median sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 11 and was higher in patients who died (12 vs. 10, p = 0.017). Mechanical ventilation was used in 75 patients and high flow nasal oxygen therapy in 1 patient. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used in 7 patients (6 survived), and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in 2 (1 survived). The prone position was used in 16 patients. In addition, other pathogens were detected in the airways on admittance to the ICU. Conclusion A substantial number of influenza infections occurred in the autumn–winter season of 2018/2019 that required costly treatment in the intensive care units. Upon admission to the ICU, influenza patients had a high degree of organ failure as assessed by the SOFA score, and the mortality rate was 44.7%. Advanced extracorporeal respiratory techniques offer real survival opportunities to patients with severe influenza-related ARDS. The presence of coinfection should be considered in patients with influenza and respiratory failure.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Amr Ashry ◽  
Amer Harky ◽  
Abdulla Tarmahomed ◽  
Christopher Ugwu ◽  
Heba M. Mohammed ◽  

Abstract Objectives: There are several studies reporting the outcomes of hypoplastic aortic arch and aortic coarctation repair with combination of techniques. However, only few studies reported of aortic arch and coarctation repair using a homograft patch through sternotomy and circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion. We report our experience and outcomes of this cohort of neonates and infants. Methods: We performed retrospective data collection for all neonates and infants who underwent aortic arch reconstruction between 2015 and 2020 at our institute. Data are presented as median and inter-quartile range (IQR). Results: The cohort included 76 patients: 49 were males (64.5%). Median age at operation was 16 days (IQR 9–43.25 days). Median weight was 3.5 kg (IQR 3.10–4 kg). There was no 30 days mortality. Three patients died in hospital after 30 days (3.95%), neurological adverse events occurred in only one patient (1.32%) and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was noted in four patients (5.26%). Only three patients required the support of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with a median ECMO run of 4 days. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR 18.9–46.4 months); 5 years survival was 93.42% (n = 71). The rate of re-intervention on the aortic arch was 9.21% (n = 7). Conclusion: Our experience shows excellent outcomes in repairing aortic arch hypoplasia with homograft patch under moderate to deep hypothermia with low in-hospital and 5 years mortality rates.

2021 ◽  
Mircea R. Mihu ◽  
Dennis Mageka ◽  
Laura V. Swant ◽  
Ahmed El Banayosy ◽  
Marc O. Maybauer ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (5) ◽  
Alexandru Pleșoianu ◽  
Carmen Pleșoianu ◽  
Iris Bararu‑Bojan (Bararu) ◽  
Maria-Cristina Vlădeanu (Apăvăloaei) ◽  
Andrei Bojan ◽  

Johanna Menger ◽  
Sofia Apostolidou ◽  
Carolin Edler ◽  
Inga Kniep ◽  
Robin Kobbe ◽  

AbstractThis case report highlights details of a case of critical acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with B1.1.7 variant in a 4-year-old girl who died due to pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage. The girl was referred to our University ECMO Center from another University hospital for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). In the clinical course, superinfection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected. Virological evidence of herpes simplex sepsis was also obtained in blood samples on her day of death. Transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung tissue. Postmortem computed tomography showed pulmonary hemorrhage with inhomogeneous density values in both lungs. Lung tissue showed no ventilated areas. Autopsy revealed a massively congested lung with evidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia with multiple abscesses. Histopathology showed a mixture of diffuse alveolar injury with hyaline membranes, massive hemorrhage, and bronchopneumonia with multiple granulocytic abscesses. Cardiac examination revealed pericarditis. Suspicion of myocarditis or myocardial infarction could not be confirmed microscopically. To our knowledge, this is the first autopsy-based case report of the death of a previously healthy child due to the new variant B 1.1.7 in Germany.

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