This study focuses on the markers of tectonically stressed zones inside the rock mass, that were identified during the regional geodynamic zoning of the mine fields of the Talnakh orogenic system. Identification features for tracing geodynamically active structures within the western flank of the Talnakh orogenic system have been identified based on morphometric analysis of the Tunguska series sediments, which are the upper layer of the ore-bearing intrusions and associated ore deposits. In the larger morphostructural groups, the boundaries of contrastingly alternating zones of elevated and depressed absolute depths at the base and the roof of the Tunguska series sediments represent the boundaries of tectonic blocks of different elevation levels with sharply contrasting indices of terrain stress. The circular-shaped structures highlighted in the morphostructural schemes spatially coincide with the tectonic forms were formed as the result of strike-slip and torsional processes. A heterogeneity, which is reflected in the allocation of blocks with different values of the stress distribution coefficient (K) is identified in the initial stress field of the Tunguska series sediments. The boundaries of the geodynamic blocks that were identified using to different methods are identical. It is established that the assumed faults correspond to the faults identified based on the detailed exploration data.
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play a vital role in the gastrointestinal motility. However, information on ICC in lower vertebrates is rare. Here, ICC and ICC-like features of the gastric wall in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The lengths and distances of the ICC/ICC-like features were measured by morphometric analysis. The gastric wall contained mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis, and serosa. The gastric glands contained mucous cells and oxynticopeptic cells. The ICC with 1–3 processes were located among smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the tunica muscularis. Moreover, the ICC-like features were observed among oxynticopeptic cells of the mucosa. The processes of ICC established direct contacts with SMC. Also, the gap junctions were observed between the processes of ICC and nerve fiber bundles in the tunica muscularis. The multivesicular bodies, including shedding exosomes, were frequently observed between ICC and SMC. In addition, ICC-like features and their processes were observed in close proximity to oxynticopeptic cells and blood vessels. Our findings illustrated that ICC are present in the gastric tunica muscularis, and ICC-like features were in the mucosal lamina propria of the gastric wall of R. catesbeiana. These histological evidences supported the notion that ICC are implicated in gastric motility.
Purpose. Determination of the influence of the process of preliminary mechanical activation on the dimensional characteristics and shape of particles of different types of clay powders.Methodology. Clay powders of montmorillonite and palygorskite type were chosen as the objects of research in this work. The process of mechanical activation of clay powders was carried out using a laboratory ball mill. For microanalysis of sample particles, the method of optical polarizing microscopy was used. Morphometric analysis of clay powder particles was performed by image analysis using the ImageJ software. At the same time, the area and perimeter were determined, and the equivalent diameter and also the shape index of the particles of the samples were calculated. The experimental data were statistically processed using the Statistica and Excel software packages.Results. The paper investigates the effect of the process of mechanical activation on the dimensional characteristics and shape of particles of montmorillonite and palygorskite type clay powders. It was found that the decrease in the average values of the equivalent particle diameter in the process of mechanical action (~14–15%) is realized mainly due to the destruction of their largest aggregates. Moreover, the intensity of this process is noticeably higher for clay of the montmorillonite type. It is shown that for both studied samples, the process of mechanical activation leads to an increase in the average values of the particle shape index (~ by 9–10%) and an increase in the uniformity of their distribution by this index.Scientific novelty. Using a detailed morphometric analysis of particles of various types of clay powders, the regularities of the influence of the mechanical activation process on the quantitative statistical characteristics of their distribution over the equivalent diameter and shape index have been established.Practical value. The results obtained will make it possible to reasonably approach the choice of pretreatment methods for clay powders intended for the production of polymer filled nanocomposite materials.