spinal epidural
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Aditya K. Patil ◽  
Srikant K. Swain ◽  
Suresh Sharma ◽  
Rajnish Kumar Arora ◽  
Achal Sharma ◽  

Abstract Background A spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare clinical entity. We performed a systematic review of the literature to obtain information regarding demographics, clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and outcome of SEACs. Methods A literature search was performed by using the databases PubMed/Medline, PubMed Central, Embase, Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid Medline In-Process. A total of 170 articles were found on literature search. We found 575 cases of SEAC since 1904 for inclusion in the review including three cases which were operated by us. We studied the patient characteristics, clinical features, and management strategies, and evaluated their outcome. Results The average age of presentation was 30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.03:1. They are commonly seen in the thoracic region (42.3%). The length of cyst was more than two vertebral levels in 85.81%. Mean symptom duration was 29 months, with most common presentation being that of compressive myelopathy. A good clinical outcome was present in symptomatic patients who had a shorter symptom duration and underwent complete surgical excision of the SEAC. Age, sex, length of lesion, and presence of dural defect did not have a bearing on the surgical outcome. Conclusion For thoracic compressive myelopathy in a young patient, SEAC should be kept as a differential diagnosis. Surgical complete excision of the cyst with meticulous closure of the dural defect is the standard in management for a good clinical outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 366
Thiemo Florin Dinger ◽  
Maija Susanna Eerikäinen ◽  
Anna Michel ◽  
Oliver Gembruch ◽  
Marvin Darkwah Oppong ◽  

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition caused by hypertrophic growth of epidural fat. The prevalence of SEL in the Western world is approximately 1 in 40 patients and is likely to increase due to current medical and socio-economic developments. Rarely, SEL can lead to rapid severe neurological deterioration. The pathophysiology, optimal treatment, and outcome of these patients remain unclear. This study aims to widen current knowledge about this “SEL subform” and to improve its clinical management. A systematic literature review according to the PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library was used to identify publications before 7 November 2021 reporting on acute/rapidly progressing, severe SEL. The final analysis comprised 12 patients with acute, severe SEL. The majority of the patients were male (9/12) and multimorbid (10/12). SEL mainly affected the thoracic part of the spinal cord (11/12), extending a median number of 7 spinal levels (range: 4–19). Surgery was the only chosen therapy (11/12), except for one critically ill patient. Regarding the outcome, half of the patients regained independence (6/11; = modified McCormick Scale ≤ II). Acute, severe SEL is a rare condition, mainly affecting multimorbid patients. The prognosis is poor in nearly 50% of the patients, even with maximum therapy. Further research is needed to stratify patients for conservative or surgical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Wesameldin A. Soltan ◽  
Ehab Fathy ◽  
Mohamed Khattab ◽  
Mohamed Saber Mostafa ◽  
Haytham Hasan ◽  

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Masako Fujita ◽  
Tatsuya Ueno ◽  
Michiru Horiuchi ◽  
Tatsuro Mitsuhashi ◽  
Shouji Yamamoto ◽  

Abstract Background Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and spinal epidural abscess (SEA) are known as mimics of each other because they present with flaccid paralysis following an infection; however, they differ in the main causative bacteria. Nevertheless, the two diseases can occur simultaneously if there is a preceding Campylobacter infection. Here, we report the first case of SEA with GBS following Campylobacter coli infection. Case presentation A 71-year-old Japanese man presented with progressive back pain and paralysis of the lower limbs following enteritis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lumbar epidural abscess that required surgical decompression; therefore, surgical drainage was performed. Blood cultures revealed the presence of C. coli. Despite surgery, the paralysis progressed to the extremities. Nerve conduction studies led to the diagnosis of GBS. Anti-ganglioside antibodies in the patient suggested that GBS was preceded by Campylobacter infection. Intravascular immunoglobulin therapy attenuated the progression of the paralysis. Conclusions We report a case of SEA and GBS following Campylobacter infection. A combination of the two diseases is rare; however, it could occur if the preceding infection is caused by Campylobacter spp. If a cause is known but the patient does not respond to the corresponding treatment, it is important to reconsider the diagnosis based on the medical history.

Maria K. Pomponio ◽  
Imad S. Khan ◽  
Linton T. Evans ◽  
Nathan E. Simmons ◽  
Perry A. Ball ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 90-96
N. V. Davydov ◽  
I. G. Trukhanova ◽  
А. D. Gureev ◽  
Yu. G. Kutyreva

The objective: to substantiate the safety of using combined spinal epidural anesthesia with expansion of the epidural space in hernioplasty in obese patients.Subjects and Methods. Hemodynamic parameters were studied in 100 obese patients who underwent elective hernioplasty of the anterior abdominal wall using the neuroaxial block of two types ‒ combined spinal epidural anesthesia with epidural volume extension (CSEA with EVE) and spinal anesthesia (SA). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 60) ‒ patients operated under combined spinal epidural anesthesia with the epidural volume extension, Group 2 (n = 40) ‒ patients operated under spinal anesthesia. The assessment of changes in main parameters of central hemodynamics, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI) was performed using the Estimated Continuous Cardiac Output technology based on the measurement of pulse wave transit time.Results. It was revealed that in Group 1 patients, the listed parameters fluctuated slightly during the entire follow-up period. The average values were: SV 76.4 ± 0.37 ml, CO 5.8 ± 0.04 l/min, CI 3.56 ± 0.03 l/min/m2. In patients of Group 2, there was an increase in SV by 35.5%, CO by 24.2%, and CI by 23.6% at minutes 2-4 of the regional blockade.Conclusions. The most obvious fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters are observed in the group of patients who underwent spinal anesthesia using relatively high doses of local anesthetic. When using CSEA with EVE with low doses of bupivacaine, stable hemodynamic parameters are noted with a constant level of the neuroaxial block.

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