caesarean section
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Christopher A. Chow ◽  
Katherine H. Campbell ◽  
Josephine C. Chou ◽  
Robert W. Elder

Abstract Background: Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder with high prevalence of congenital heart defects, such as pulmonary stenosis, atrial septal defect and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Scarce data exists regarding the safety of pregnancy in patients with Noonan syndrome, particularly in the context of maternal cardiac disease. Study design: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 2012 to 2020 with diagnoses of Noonan syndrome and pregnancy. We analysed medical records for pregnancy details and cardiac health, including echocardiograms to quantify maternal cardiac dysfunction through measurements of pulmonary valve peak gradient, structural heart defects and interventricular septal thickness. Results: We identified five women with Noonan syndrome (10 pregnancies). Three of five patients had pulmonary valve stenosis at the time of pregnancy, two of which had undergone cardiac procedures. 50% of pregnancies (5/10) resulted in pre-term birth. 80% (8/10) of all deliveries were converted to caesarean section after a trial of labour. One pregnancy resulted in intra-uterine fetal demise while nine pregnancies resulted in the birth of a living infant. 60% (6/10) of livebirths required care in the neonatal intensive care unit. One infant passed away at 5 weeks of age. Conclusions: The majority of mothers had pre-existing, though mild, heart disease. We found high rates of prematurity, conversion to caesarean section, and elevated level of care. No maternal complications resulted in long-term morbidity. Our study suggests that women with Noonan syndrome and low-risk cardiac lesions can become pregnant and deliver a healthy infant with counselling and risk evaluation.

Gillian M. Maher ◽  
Ali S. Khashan ◽  
Fergus P. McCarthy

Abstract Purpose To examine the association between mode of delivery (in particular caesarean section) and behavioural outcomes in offspring at six time-points between age 3 and 17 years. Methods Similar to previous work examining the association between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in offspring at age 7, we used maternal-reported data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data on mode of delivery were collected when children were 9 months and categorised as spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, induced vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section, planned caesarean section and caesarean section after induction of labor. Data on behavioural outcomes were collected at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14 and 17 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Crude and adjusted logistic regression examined mode of delivery–behavioural difficulties relationship, using validated SDQ cut-off points (total SDQ ≥ 17, emotional ≥ 5, conduct ≥ 4, hyperactivity ≥ 7, peer problems ≥ 4 and prosocial behaviour ≤ 4). Multilevel models with linear splines examined the association between mode of delivery and repeated measures of SDQ. Results There were 18,213 singleton mother–child pairs included at baseline, 13,600 at age 3; 13,831 at age 5; 12,687 at age 7; 11,055 at age 11; 10,745 at age 14 and 8839 at age 17. Adjusted logistic regression suggested few associations between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes at ages 3, 5, 11, 14 and 17 years using validated SDQ cut-off points. After correction for multiple testing, only the protective association between planned caesarean section-Conduct difficulties at age 5 years (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.85) and positive association between caesarean section after induction-Emotional difficulties at age 11 years (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19, 2.07) remained statistically significant. Multilevel modelling suggested mean SDQ scores were similar in each mode of delivery group at each time point. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that mode of delivery is unlikely to have a major impact on behavioural outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anastasia Martin ◽  
Diane Nzelu ◽  
Annette Briley ◽  
Graham Tydeman ◽  
Andrew Shennan

Abstract Background The rate of second stage caesarean section (CS) is rising with associated increases in maternal and neonatal morbidity, which may be related to impaction of the fetal head in the maternal pelvis. In the last 10 years, two devices have been developed to aid disimpaction and reduce these risks: the Fetal Pillow (FP) and the Tydeman Tube (TT). The aim of this study was to determine the distance of upward fetal head elevation achieved on a simulator for second stage CS using these two devices, compared to the established technique of per vaginum digital disimpaction by an assistant. Methods We measured elevation of the fetal head achieved with the two devices (TT and FP), compared to digital elevation, on a second stage Caesearean simulator (Desperate Debra ™ set at three levels of severity. Elevation was measured by both a single operator experienced with use of the TT and FP and also multiple assistants with no previous experience of using either device. All measurements were blinded Results The trained user achieved greater elevation of the fetal head at both moderate and high levels of severity with the TT (moderate: 30mm vs 12.5mm p<0.001; most severe: 25mm vs 10mm p<0.001) compared to digital elevation. The FP provided comparable elevation to digital at both settings (moderate: 10 vs 12.5mm p=0.149; severe 10 vs 10mm p=0.44). With untrained users, elevation was also significantly greater with the TT compared to digital elevation (20mm vs 10mm p<0.01). However digital disimpaction was significantly greater than the FP (10mm vs 0mm p<0.0001). Conclusion On a simulator, with trained operators, the TT provided greater fetal head elevation than digital elevation and the FP. The FP achieved similar elevation to the digital technique, especially when the user was trained in the procedure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Stuti Bahl ◽  
Neeta Dhabhai ◽  
Sunita Taneja ◽  
Pratima Mittal ◽  
Rupali Dewan ◽  

Abstract Background The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be increasing in India and may be related to the double burden of malnutrition. The population-based incidence and risk factors of GDM, particularly in lower socio-economic populations, are not known. We conducted analyses on data from a population-based cohort of pregnant women in South Delhi, India, to determine the incidence of GDM, its risk factors and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, large for gestational age babies) and need for caesarean section. Methods We analyzed data from the intervention group of the Women and Infants Integrated Interventions for Growth Study (WINGS), an individually randomized factorial design trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the time of confirmation of pregnancy, and for those who had a normal test (≤140 mg), it was repeated at 24–28 and at 34–36 weeks. Logistic regression was performed to ascertain risk factors associated with GDM. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to find association between GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes and need for caesarean section. Results 19.2% (95% CI: 17.6 to 20.9) pregnant women who had at least one OGTT were diagnosed to have GDM. Women who had prediabetes at the time of confirmation of pregnancy had a significantly higher risk of developing GDM (RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.45 to 2.97). Other risk factors independently associated with GDM were woman’s age (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.15) and BMI (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07). Higher maternal height was found to be protective factor for GDM (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00). Women with GDM, received appropriate treatment did not have an increase in adverse outcomes and no increased need for caesarean section Conclusions A substantial proportion of pregnant women from a low to mid socio-economic population in Delhi had GDM, with older age, higher BMI and pre-diabetes as important risk factors. These findings highlight the need for interventions for prevention and provision of appropriate management of GDM in antenatal programmes. Clinical trial registration Clinical Trial Registry – India, #CTRI/2017/06/008908 (

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Viorel Dragos Radu ◽  
Anda Ioana Pristavu ◽  
Angela Vinturache ◽  
Pavel Onofrei ◽  
Demetra Gabriela Socolov ◽  

Background and Objectives: Acute urologic complications, including bladder and/or ureteric injury, are rare but known events occurring at the time of caesarean section (CS). Delayed or inadequate management is associated with increased morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. We conducted this study to identify the risk factors for urologic injuries at CS in order to inform obstetricians and patients of the risks and allow management planning to mitigate these risks. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all cases of urological injuries that occurred at CS surgeries in a tertiary university centre over a period of four years, from January 2016 to December 2019. To assess the risk factors of urologic injuries, a case-control study of women undergoing caesarean delivery was designed, matched 1:3 to randomly selected women who had an uncomplicated CS. Electronic medical records and operative reports were reviewed for socio-demographic and clinical information. Descriptive and univariate analyses were used to characterize the study population and identify the risk factors for urologic complications. Results: There were 36 patients with urologic complications out of 14,340 CS patients, with an incidence of 0.25%. The patients in the case group were older, had a lower gestational age at time of delivery and their newborns had a lower birth weight. Prior CS was more prevalent among the study group (88.2 vs. 66.7%), as was the incidence of placenta accreta and central praevia. In comparison with the control group, the intraoperative blood loss was higher in the case group, although there was no difference among the two groups regarding the type of surgery (emergency vs. elective), uterine rupture, or other obstetrical indications for CS. Prior CS and caesarean hysterectomy were risk factors for urologic injuries at CS. Conclusions: The major risk factor for urological injuries at the time of CS surgery is prior CS. Among patients with previous CS, those who undergo caesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa central and placenta accreta are at higher risk of surgical haemostasis and complex urologic injuries involving the bladder and the ureters.

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Bharti Joshi ◽  
Maninder K Ghotra ◽  
Ujjwal Gorsi ◽  
Subhas Chandra Saha ◽  
Pooja Sikka

2022 ◽  
Stéphane Cullati ◽  
Berenike Quecke ◽  
Yannick Graf ◽  
Adina‐Mihaela Epure ◽  
Valérie Santschi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shazia Jamshed ◽  
Shuo-Chen Chien ◽  
Afifa Tanweer ◽  
Rahma-Novita Asdary ◽  
Muhammad Hardhantyo ◽  

Background: The increasing rates of Caesarean section (CS) beyond the WHO standards (10–15%) pose a significant global health concern.Objective: Systematic review and meta-analysis to identify an association between CS history and maternal adverse outcomes for the subsequent pregnancy and delivery among women classified in Robson classification (RC).Search Strategy: PubMed/Medline, EbscoHost, ProQuest, Embase, Web of Science, BIOSIS, MEDLINE, and Russian Science Citation Index databases were searched from 2008 to 2018.Selection Criteria: Based on Robson classification, studies reporting one or more of the 14 adverse maternal outcomes were considered eligible for this review.Data Collection: Study design data, interventions used, CS history, and adverse maternal outcomes were extracted.Main Results: From 4,084 studies, 28 (n = 1,524,695 women) met the inclusion criteria. RC group 5 showed the highest proportion among deliveries followed by RC10, RC7, and RC8 (67.71, 32.27, 0.02, and 0.001%). Among adverse maternal outcomes, hysterectomy had the highest association after preterm delivery OR = 3.39 (95% CI 1.56–7.36), followed by Severe Maternal Outcomes OR = 2.95 (95% CI 1.00–8.67). We identified over one and a half million pregnant women, of whom the majority were found to belong to RC group 5.Conclusions: Previous CS was observed to be associated with adverse maternal outcomes for the subsequent pregnancies. CS rates need to be monitored given the prospective risks which may occur for maternal and child health in subsequent births.

Manon Marquet ◽  
Julie Blanc ◽  
Claude D'Ercole ◽  
Xavier Carcopino ◽  
Florence Bretelle ◽  

Objective: To determine the influence of a training course in physiology-based interpretation of cardiotocography (CTG) on professional practices. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: A national online survey. Population: Fifty-seven French obstetricians Methods: The participants were divided into two groups: the training group (obstetricians who had already participated in a training course in physiology-based interpretation of CTG) and the control group. Ten medical records of patients who had abnormal CTG tracings and underwent a foetal scalp blood sampling (pH) during labour were presented to the participants. They were given three choices: (i) use a second-line method, (ii) continue labour without using a second-line method, or (iii) perform a caesarean section. Main outcome measures: Median number of decisions to use second-line methods. Results: Forty participants were included in the training group and 17 in the control group. The median number of recourses to a second-line method was significantly inferior for the training group (4 [2–6] second-line methods on 10 records) than for the control group (6 [4–7]; p = 0.040). Regarding the 4 records for which a caesarean section was the real outcome, the median number of decisions of continuing labour was significantly superior in the training group than in the control group (1 [0–1] vs. 0 [0–1]; p = 0.032). Conclusions: Participation in a training course in physiology-based interpretation of CTG could be associated with a less frequent use of second-line methods. Additional studies are required to determine whether this change in attitude is safe for the foetal well-being.

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