Clinical Outcome
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gang Xu ◽  
Furong Qi ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  

COVID-19 patients show heterogeneous and dynamic immune features which determine the clinical outcome. Here, we built a single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset for dissecting these complicated immune responses through a longitudinal survey of COVID-19 patients with various categories of outcomes. The data reveals a highly fluctuating peripheral immune landscape in severe COVID-19, whereas the one in asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 is relatively steady. Then, the perturbed immune landscape in peripheral blood returned to normal state in those recovered from severe COVID-19. Importantly, the imbalance of the excessively strong innate immune response and delayed adaptive immunity in the early stage of viral infection accelerates the progression of the disease, indicated by a transient strong IFN response and weak T/B-cell specific response. The proportion of abnormal monocytes appeared early and rose further throughout the severe disease. Our data indicate that a dynamic immune landscape is associated with the progression and recovery of severe COVID-19, and have provided multiple immune biomarkers for early warning of severe COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
MariaGiovanna Trivieri ◽  
Philip M Robson ◽  
Vittoria Vergani ◽  
Gina LaRocca ◽  
Angelica M Romero-Daza ◽  

Objectives: To evaluate an extended hybrid MR/PET imaging strategy in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) employing qualitative and quantitative assessment of PET tracer uptake, and to evaluate its association with cardiac-related outcomes. Background: Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is the gold standard to diagnose CS, but it has poor sensitivity due to the patchy distribution of disease. Imaging with hybrid late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MR and 18F-fluorodexyglucose (18F-FDG) PET allows simultaneous assessment of myocardial injury and disease activity and has shown promise for improved diagnosis of active CS based on the combined positive imaging outcome, MR(+)PET(+). Methods: 148 patients with suspected CS were enrolled for hybrid MR/PET imaging. Patients were classified based on presence/absence of LGE (MR+/MR-), presence/absence of 18F-FDG (PET+/PET-), and pattern of 18F-FDG uptake (focal/diffuse) into the following categories: MR(+)PET(+)FOCAL, MR(+)PET(+)DIFFUSE, MR(+)PET(-), MR(-)PET(+)FOCAL, MR(-)PET(+)DIFFUSE, MR(-)PET(-). Patients classified as MR(+)PET(+)FOCAL were designated as having active CS [aCS(+)], while all others were considered as having inactive or absent CS and designated aCS(-). Quantitative values of standard uptake value (SUVmax), target-to-background ratio (TBRmax), target-to-normal-myocardium ratio (TNMRmax) and T2 were measured. Occurrence of a cardiac-related clinical outcome was defined as any of the following during the 6-month period after imaging: cardiac arrest, ventricular arrhythmia, complete heart block, need for cardiac resynchronization/defibrillator/pacemaker/monitoring device (CRT-D, ICD/WCD, or ILR). MR/PET imaging results were compared to the presence of the composite clinical outcome. Results: Patients designated aCS(+) had more than 4-fold increased odds of meeting the clinical endpoint compared to aCS(-) (unadjusted odds ratio 4.8; 95% CI 2.0-11.4; p<0.001). TNMRmax achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 for separating aCS(+) from aCS(-). Conclusions: Hybrid MR/PET imaging with an extended image-based classification of CS was statistically associated with clinical outcomes in CS. TNMRmax had high sensitivity and excellent specificity for quantifying the imaging-based classification of active CS.

Francesco Paciullo ◽  
Paola Santina Menduno ◽  
Davide Tucci ◽  
Anna Caricato ◽  
Carlo Cagini ◽  

Aditya K. Patil ◽  
Srikant K. Swain ◽  
Suresh Sharma ◽  
Rajnish Kumar Arora ◽  
Achal Sharma ◽  

Abstract Background A spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare clinical entity. We performed a systematic review of the literature to obtain information regarding demographics, clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and outcome of SEACs. Methods A literature search was performed by using the databases PubMed/Medline, PubMed Central, Embase, Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid Medline In-Process. A total of 170 articles were found on literature search. We found 575 cases of SEAC since 1904 for inclusion in the review including three cases which were operated by us. We studied the patient characteristics, clinical features, and management strategies, and evaluated their outcome. Results The average age of presentation was 30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.03:1. They are commonly seen in the thoracic region (42.3%). The length of cyst was more than two vertebral levels in 85.81%. Mean symptom duration was 29 months, with most common presentation being that of compressive myelopathy. A good clinical outcome was present in symptomatic patients who had a shorter symptom duration and underwent complete surgical excision of the SEAC. Age, sex, length of lesion, and presence of dural defect did not have a bearing on the surgical outcome. Conclusion For thoracic compressive myelopathy in a young patient, SEAC should be kept as a differential diagnosis. Surgical complete excision of the cyst with meticulous closure of the dural defect is the standard in management for a good clinical outcome.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262511
Tae Ran Ahn ◽  
Yu Mi Jeong ◽  
So Hyun Park ◽  
Ji Young Jeon ◽  
Sheen-Woo Lee ◽  

Purpose We aimed to analyze the prevalence, causes, and clinical settings of 4-year critical radiologic reports (CRRs) notified from the musculoskeletal section of the radiology department. Then, we investigated the communication outcomes. Methods This study was approved by our institutional review board. We retrospectively included 175 musculoskeletal CRRs from our database between January 2017 and December 2020. The CRRs were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who categorized the CRRs by clinical setting (emergency department(ED) patient, outpatient, and inpatient), body part, type of image modality, reason for CRR, incidental lesion, and clinical outcome. The clinical outcome was retrieved from the electronic medical records. Results The 175 musculoskeletal CRRs accounted for 5.4% of the CRRs (n = 3217) available in the study period. Most CRRs (94.9%, 166/175) corresponded to the musculoskeletal system, while the remaining ones (5.1%, 9/175) corresponded to the non-musculoskeletal system. In addition, the spine, extremities, and thoracic cage accounted for 52.6%, 40.6%, and 1.7% of the musculoskeletal CRRs, respectively. Moreover, most patients presented to the ED (50.3%, 88/175), followed by inpatients (30.9%, 54/175), and outpatients (18.9%, 33/175). The CRR reasons included missed fracture (54.3%), suspected malignancy (16%), clinical emergency (10.3%), unexpected infection/inflammation (11.4%), and others (8%). Furthermore, 11 (6.3%) incidental lesions were not related to the primary imaging purpose. Referring clinicians actively acknowledged 80% of the CRRs. The loss to follow-up action was the highest in the ED patients (35.2%, 31/88; p < 0.001), being significantly higher than that in outpatients (6.1%, 2/33) and inpatients (3.7%, 2/54). Conclusion Missed fractures were the most common cause of musculoskeletal CRRs. ED showed prevalence in musculoskeletal CRRs and reflected the highest loss to follow-up action. ED physicians should pay more attention to CRRs to enhance patient care.

Mukta Meel ◽  
Mukesh Kumar Bhaskar ◽  
Arpita Jindal

AbstractPleomorphic carcinoma is a malignant and aggressive primary lung carcinoma that occurs at a rate of approximately 0.3%. This rarely encountered tumor may present a diagnostic challenge to neuroradiologists and pathologists, as it has propensity to present as hemorrhagic brain metastasis with unknown primary and result in delay in diagnosis that could impact clinical outcome. Herein, we report a unique case in its presentation in a 56-year-old female, having symptomatic brain metastasis prior to the discovery of the pulmonary lesion.

Epigenomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Milad Shirvaliloo

Smoking could predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 by upregulating a particular gene known as mdig, which is mediated through a number of well-known histone modifications. Smoking might regulate the transcription-activating H3K4me3 mark, along with the transcription-repressing H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks, in a way to favor SARS-CoV-2 entry by enhancing the expression of ACE2, NRP1 and NRP2, AT1R, CTSD and CTSL, PGE2 receptors 2–4, SLC6A20 and IL-6, all of which interact either directly or indirectly with important receptors, facilitating viral entry in COVID-19.

Srikant Venkatakrishnan ◽  
Meeka Khanna ◽  
Anupam Gupta

Abstract Background Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) provides information on intracranial blood flow status in stroke patients and can predict rehabilitation outcomes. Objective This study aimed to assess middle cerebral artery (MCA) parameters using TCCD in MCA territory stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation and correlate with clinical outcome measures. Material and Methods Patients aged 18 to 65 years with a first MCA territory stroke, within 6 months of onset were recruited. The clinical outcome scales and TCCD parameters were assessed at both admission and discharge. The scales used were the Scandinavian stroke scale (SSS), Barthel Index (BI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Fugl–Meyer upper extremity scale (FMA-UE), modified motor assessment scale (mMAS) scores. TCCD parameters measured were MCA peak systolic, end diastolic, mean flow velocities (MFV), and index of symmetry (SI) and were correlated with clinical scores. Results Fourteen patients were recruited with median age of 56.5 years, median duration of stroke was 42.5 days. Mean flow velocities of affected and unaffected MCA were 46.2 and 50.7 cm/s, respectively. Flow velocities and SI did not change between the two assessments. There was significant improvement in clinical outcome scores at discharge. Significant correlation was observed for patient group with SI > 0.9 at admission with FMA-UE, SSS, and BI scores at discharge (p < 0.05). Conclusion Flow velocity parameters did not change during in-patient rehabilitation. Patients with symmetric flow at admission had improved clinical outcomes measure scores at discharge. Thus SI can predict rehabilitation outcomes in stroke survivors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Jiamin Xu ◽  
Fuqin Kang ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Shujun Liu ◽  
Jianhui Xie ◽  

Background. Clinical research found that TCM is therapeutic in treating gastric cancer. Clearing heat is the most common method, while some antirheumatic medicines are widely used in treatment as well. To explore the pharmacological mechanism, we researched the comparison between heat-clearing medicine and antirheumatic medicine in treating gastric cancer. Methods. First, related ingredients and targets were searched, respectively, and are shown in an active ingredient-target network. Combining the relevant targets of gastric cancer, we constructed a PPI network and MCODE network. Then, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were conducted. Molecular docking experiments were performed to verify the affinity of targets and ligands. Finally, we analyzed the tumor immune infiltration on gene expression, somatic CNA, and clinical outcome. Results. A total of 31 ingredients and 90 targets of heat-clearing medicine, 31 ingredients and 186 targets of antirheumatic medicine, and 12,155 targets of gastric cancer were collected. Antirheumatic medicine ranked the top in all the enrichment analyses. In the KEGG pathway, both types of medicines were related to pathways in cancer. In the KEGG map, AR, MMP2, ERBB2, and TP53 were the most crucial targets. Key targets and ligands were docked with low binding energy. Analysis of tumor immune infiltration showed that the expressions of AR and ERBB2 were correlated with the abundance of immune infiltration and made a difference in clinical outcomes. Conclusions. Quercetin is an important ingredient in both heat-clearing medicine and antirheumatic medicine. AR signaling pathway exists in both types of medicines. The mechanism of the antitumor effect in antirheumatic medicine was similar to trastuzumab, a targeted drug aimed at ERBB2. Both types of medicines were significant in tumor immune infiltration. The immunology of gastric tumor deserves further research.

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