Recently Published Documents
Psychiatric and Physical Health Outcomes Associated with Interpersonal Violence: A Propensity Score Matching Approach
How does the early life environment influence the oral microbiome and determine oral health outcomes in childhood?
Dyslexia, the most common learning disability, is associated with poor academic, economic, vocational, and health outcomes. Disproportionately, dyslexia is undiagnosed and untreated in children who are Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) or who live in poverty. Early identification of and subsequent interventions for children at risk for dyslexia can effectively mitigate poor outcomes. While screening and interventions largely occur in schools, social workers across practice contexts have responsibilities to address dyslexia: identifying, referring, educating, and advocating. Social workers should address dyslexia to promote equity and improve quality of life and various outcomes across the life course. This paper describes dyslexia, early screening, and interventions; dyslexia as a social justice issue; and social workers’ roles in addressing dyslexia.
Participating in out-of-home (OOH) activities has been shown to benefit health in older adults. This scoping review aimed to describe the nature of the literature on OOH activities and health in community dwelling older adults, and the operationalization of OOH activity and health-related variables. We followed the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Four databases were searched; studies were selected through title/abstract and full-text screening; and data on study characteristics, sample, and OOH activity and health-related variables were extracted, and summarized descriptively. Sixty articles were identified. There was a considerable focus on leisure and social activities (78% and 75%, respectively) but no predominant health-related outcome was identified. Few studies analyzed sex/gender and/or racial differences (25% and 2%, respectively). Future studies may include systematic reviews focused on health outcomes associated with social and leisure OOH activities; as well as gender-based and/or race-based differences in OOH and health relationships.
A journey of gender in health: Transforming health by promoting gender considerations through comic art
Sex and gender are determinants of health outcomes across an individual’s life course. However, often in health research and practice, sex and gender considerations are either overlooked or confounded. Recent developments in health research and practice ask for the inclusion of sex and gender considerations within health research and practice. This article is a reaction to these calls. It explores the ways in which an international team of health researchers created a comic book that highlighted the impact of gender in many areas of health across an individual’s life course. The creative processes are critically explored, as well as selected images. Through this work, it is proposed that comic art knowledge mobilization projects can be viewed as means to transform health research and practice by critiquing and disrupting dominant cis-heteronormative sex and gender discourses.
How people respond to health threats can influence their own health and, when people are facing communal risks, even their community’s health. We propose that people commonly respond to health threats by managing their emotions with cognitive strategies such as reappraisal, which can reduce fear and protect mental health. However, because fear can also motivate health behaviors, reducing fear may also jeopardize health behaviors. In two diverse U.S. samples ( N = 1,241) tracked across 3 months, sequential and cross-lagged panel mediation models indicated that reappraisal predicted lower fear about an ongoing health threat (COVID-19) and, in turn, better mental health but fewer recommended physical health behaviors. This trade-off was not inevitable, however: The use of reappraisal to increase socially oriented positive emotions predicted better mental health without jeopardizing physical health behaviors. Examining the costs and benefits of how people cope with health threats is essential for promoting better health outcomes for individuals and communities.
Victimization as a Result of Non-Consensual Dissemination of Sexting and Psychopathology Correlates: An Exploratory Analysis
Sexting is generally known as creating, sending and/or forwarding of sexual content using electronic devices. When such content is non-consensually disseminated, it becomes a criminally relevant behavior. To date, very few empirical studies have examined the prevalence of non-consensual dissemination of sexting, and none of them have analyzed the relationship with psychopathology and further victimization outcomes. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of non-consensual dissemination of sexual content, (2) to analyze the prevalence of further victimization as a result of non-consensual dissemination of sexting and (3) to investigate the association between secondary victimization as a result of non-consensual dissemination of sexting and psychopathology. The sample comprised 1370 Spanish college students (73.6% female; mean age = 21.4 years; SD = 4.85) who answered an online survey about their engagement in sexting behaviors, online sexual victimization and psychopathology, measured by a sexting scale and the Listado de Síntomas Breve (LSB-50), respectively. Overall, 43 participants (3.14) were victims of non-consensual dissemination of sexting, and results showed those participants who had suffered further victimization reported higher psychopathology scores than those who were not victimized and that being victimized by an ex-partner was associated with poorer mental health outcomes in the victim. Further implications are discussed.
Estimating the health benefits of timely diagnosis and treatment of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy
Aim: Delayed diagnosis of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) represents a missed opportunity for intervention. This study estimates the health benefits of timely diagnosis and treatment with tafamidis. Methods: A disease simulation model was developed to predict health outcomes under scenarios of timely and delayed diagnosis and treatment. Efficacy and quality of life (QoL) profiles were derived from the pivotal tafamidis trial and diagnostic delay durations from the literature. Results: Timely diagnosis and treatment were predicted to extend mean life expectancy by 5.46 and 7.76 years, relative to delayed diagnosis, for wild-type and hereditary ATTR-CM, respectively. Corresponding QALY gains were 4.50 and 6.22. Conclusion: Timely diagnosis and treatment with tafamidis are predicted to significantly improve survival and QoL for ATTR-CM patients.
Risk-Aversion for Negative Health Outcomes May Promote Individual Compliance to Containment Measures in Covid-19 Pandemic
First-person experience of stressful life events can change individuals' risk attitudes, driving to increased or decreased risk perception. This shift to more risk-averse or risk-loving behaviors may find a correlate in the individual psycho-socio-emotional profile. To this purpose, we aimed to estimate the relationship between differences in risk-taking attitudes toward possible negative health outcomes and psycho-socio-emotional dimensions modulating the experience of life-threatening situations, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. In March 2020, we launched the PsyCovid Study (https://wprn.org/item/428452) to assess psycho-socio-emotional changes due to Covid-19 pandemic in the Italian population. Additionally, we distributed to 130 participants the Covid-19 Risk Task, including monetary and health-related stimuli, estimating a measure of risk-aversion toward health and classifying participants on the basis of their risk-attitude profiles. The set of psycho-socio-emotional variables was reduced to three PCA components: Proactivity, Isolation, Inactivity. The individual degree of risk-aversion toward negative health outcomes was directly related to Proactivity, encasing empathic, social support and positive coping strategies, which may prompt individuals to put in place self-protection strategies toward possible negative health consequences. These findings indicate that a risk-averse profile toward possible negative health outcomes may be associated to higher levels of individual prosocial and proactive dispositions, possibly making individuals' more compliant with the social and hygienic guidelines and, thus, reducing their exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.