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2021 ◽  
Vol 61 (5) ◽  
pp. e215-e224
Author(s):  
Ranveer Brar ◽  
Alan Katz ◽  
Thomas Ferguson ◽  
Reid H. Whitlock ◽  
Michelle Di Nella ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanxia Lu ◽  
Xinyi Gwee ◽  
Denise Q. L. Chua ◽  
Crystal T. Y. Tan ◽  
Keng Bee Yap ◽  
...  

Background: Multi-system physiological dysregulation (PD) may represent a biological endo-phenotype of clinical frailty. We investigated the co-occurrence of PD with physical frailty and its contributions to the known impact of frailty on adverse health outcomes.Methods: Data of 2,725 participants from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Studies (SLAS-2), included baseline measures of physical frailty and PD derived from Mahalanobis distance (Dm) value of 23 blood biomarkers. We analyzed their concurrent association and their impacts on 9-year mortality, MMSE cognition, GDS depression, number of medications, disability, and hospitalization at baseline and follow up (mean 4.5 years).Results: Global PD (Log10Dm, mean = 1.24, SD = 0.24) was significantly but weakly associated with pre-frailty-and-frailty. Controlling for age, sex and education, pre-frailty-and-frailty (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.51–3.00) and PD (HR = 3.88, 95% CI = 2.15–6.98) predicted mortality. Together in the same model, mortality HR associated with pre-frailty-and-frailty (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.22–2.73) and PD (HR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.60–5.85) were reduced after additionally adding global PD to the prediction model. The predictive accuracy for mortality were both approximately the same (PD: AUC = 0.62, frailty: AUC = 0.64), but AUC was significantly increased to 0.68 when combined (p < 0.001). Taken into account in the same model, frailty remained significantly associated with all health and functional outcomes, and PD was significantly associated with only MMSE, disability and medications used. In secondary analyses, there were mixed associations of system-specific PDs with frailty and different adverse outcomes.Conclusions: Co-existing PD and physical frailty independently predict mortality and functional and health outcomes, with increased predictive accuracy when combined. PD appears to be a valid representation of a biological endo-phenotype of frailty, and the potential utility of such subclinical measures of frailty could be further studied.


Author(s):  
Man Thi Hue Vo ◽  
Keiko Nakamura ◽  
Kaoruko Seino ◽  
Thang Van Vo

In modern Asian societies, there has been a shift in the living arrangements of older adults away from living with others. Knowing the health characteristics of individuals living alone can help identify high-risk groups. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe characteristics of the Vietnamese older adults and to investigate the association between living alone and their reported health outcomes by utilizing survey data of individuals aged ≥60 years in Vietnam in 2018. The community survey included questions about sociodemographic factors, living arrangement, and self-reported physical functional status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine whether or not living alone was a predictor of health outcomes. Of 725 study participants, 8.9% lived alone. These participants were more likely to be female, aged 70–79 years, living in rural areas, and currently single or previously married. After adjusting for covariates, older adults who were living alone were more likely to have arthritis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–3.45), a history of falling (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.02–5.82), visual difficulties (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.04–3.41), feelings of loneliness (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.10–3.47), and high fear of falling (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.02–3.46). Older adults living alone in Vietnam were at greater risk of negative health consequences than those living with others. Screening and providing adequate social support for this specific population is important in preventing the adverse effects of solitary living among these older adults.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 100930
Author(s):  
Carolina Cardona ◽  
Neha Sahai Anand ◽  
Y. Natalia Alfonso ◽  
Jonathon P. Leider ◽  
J. Mac McCullough ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 019372352110436
Author(s):  
Sylvie Parent ◽  
Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel ◽  
Allyson Gillard

The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between interpersonal violence (IV) experienced in the context of sport by teenagers and three mental health outcomes: self-esteem, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A convenience sample of 1055 French-Canadian athletes between the ages of 14 and 17 who were participating in an organized sport was recruited to participate in an online survey. Results showed that psychological violence and neglect as well as sexual violence were independently related to lower self-esteem while physical, psychological/neglect, and sexual violence were all independently related to higher psychological distress and PTSD symptoms. Early intervention programs for athletes that experience IV is critical as it may help prevent the development of subsequent mental health issues.


2021 ◽  
pp. 00419-2021
Author(s):  
Mark C Liu ◽  
Elisabeth H Bel ◽  
Oliver Kornmann ◽  
Wendy C Moore ◽  
Norihiro Kaneko ◽  
...  

AbstractAsthma worsening and symptom control are clinically important health outcomes in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. This analysis of COMET evaluated whether stopping versus continuing long-term mepolizumab therapy impacted these outcomes.Patients with severe eosinophilic asthma with ≥3 years continuous mepolizumab treatment (via COLUMBA [NCT01691859] or COSMEX [NCT02135692] open label studies) were eligible to enter COMET (NCT02555371), a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to continue mepolizumab 100 mg subcutaneous every four weeks or stop mepolizumab, plus standard of care asthma treatment. Patients could switch to open label mepolizumab following an exacerbation. Health outcome endpoints included time to first asthma worsening (composite endpoint: rescue use, symptoms, awakening at night and morning PEF), patient and clinician assessed global rating of asthma severity and overall perception of response to therapy, and unscheduled healthcare resource utilisation.Patients who stopped mepolizumab showed increased risk of and shorter time to first asthma worsening compared with those who continued mepolizumab (Hazard Ratio [HR]:1.71 [95% CI: 1.17 2.52] p=0.006), including reduced asthma control (increased risk of first worsening in rescue use [HR:1.36 (95% CI 1.00 1.84) p=0.047] and morning PEF [HR:1.77 (95% CI 1.21 2.59) p=0.003]). There was a higher probability of any unscheduled healthcare resource use (HR:1.81 [95% CI: 1.31 2.49]; p<0.001) and patients and clinicians reported greater asthma severity and less favourable perceived response to therapy for patients who stopped versus continued mepolizumab.These data suggest that patients with severe eosinophilic asthma continuing long-term mepolizumab treatment sustain clinically important improvements in health outcomes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Claire Pauly ◽  
Fabiana Ribeiro ◽  
Valerie E. Schröder ◽  
Laure Pauly ◽  
Rejko Krüger ◽  
...  

Background: Associations between personality traits and mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, loneliness, and stress) have rarely been assessed in a population-representative sample of a high-income country during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, as far as we know, the role of health and social behaviors as well as resilience in the personality-mental health relationship has yet to be explored.Methods: A representative sample of 1,828 residents of Luxembourg filled in validated scales to assess personality traits and resilience, depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety, loneliness, and stress, indicating mental health, in mid-April 2020.Results: Approximately 21% of the participants scored above the cut-off for moderate depression and moderate loneliness. Moderate anxiety and moderate stress were present in 6.2 and 0.3% of the participants, respectively. Higher-educated respondents and those living in higher-value housing reported better mental health. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were most consistently associated with better mental health; neuroticism was most consistently associated with worse mental health. Spending more time on social media was also associated with elevated levels of all four mental health outcomes. Social and health behaviors did not change the personality-mental health relationships. Resilience moderated some of the personality-mental health associations, most consistently in neuroticism.Conclusions: Findings suggest educational and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health in a nationally representative sample during the COVID-19 confinement measures. Personality traits, particularly agreeableness, conscientiousness, and low neuroticism were associated with mental health. The moderating role of resilience in the personality-mental health relationship suggests intervention potential to improve mental health during periods of confinement.


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