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2099 ◽  
Vol 16 (02) ◽  
pp. 279-284
Azeez Bukhari ◽  
Muhammad Khurram Munir ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the awareness & practices regarding weaning in lactating mothers of infants. Design: A crosssectional descriptive study. Setting: At pediatrics OPD in Ghurki Trust Teaching hospital, Lahore. Period: From Octoberto December 2007.Methodology: A non probability convenience sampling was done to collect data from 50 mothers who were attending out patient departmentalong with their infants on a pre-formed questionnaire. After gathering, data was analyzed & presented in the form of tables & graphs.Results: In the present study, 66% mothers were in the age group of 20-29 years, all were house wives, 34 % were matriculate and 72%lived in joint family system, Mean age of weaning was 4-6 months in more than 64 % of the sample. Among the women interviewed, 44%used home-made weaning diets, 30% used mixture of homemade and commercially prepared diets, while 16% used only commerciallyprepared diets. Breast feeding was continued during and after weaning, by 64% of respondents along with weaning diets. Conclusion:Mothers need to be educated about the importance of weaning, the recommended age of weaning and about the types of weaning food.This can be achieved by using lady health workers and lady health visitors and the mass media. Importance of continued breast feedingwith weaning diet should be emphasized upon.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Amyn A. Malik ◽  
Hamidah Hussain ◽  
Rabia Maniar ◽  
Nauman Safdar ◽  
Amal Mohiuddin ◽  

As the COVID-19 pandemic surged, lockdowns led to the cancellation of essential health services. As part of our Zero TB activities in Karachi, we adapted our approach to integrate activities for TB and COVID-19 to decrease the impact on diagnosis and linkage to care for TB treatment. We implemented the following: (1) integrated COVID-19 screening and testing within existing TB program activities, along with the use of an artificial intelligence (AI) software reader on digital chest X-rays; (2) home delivery of medication; (3) use of telehealth and mental health counseling; (4) provision of PPE; (5) burnout monitoring of health workers; and (6) patient safety and disinfectant protocol. We used programmatic data for six districts of Karachi from January 2018 to March 2021 to explore the time trends in case notifications, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and service adaptations in the city. The case notifications in all six districts in Karachi were over 80% of the trend-adjusted expected notifications with three districts having over 90% of the expected case notifications. Overall, Karachi reached 90% of the expected case notifications during the COVID-19 pandemic. The collaborative efforts by the provincial TB program and private sector partners facilitated this reduced loss in case notifications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Oumar Bassoum ◽  
Ndeye Mareme Sougou ◽  
Mouhamadou Faly Ba ◽  
Malick Anne ◽  
Mamoudou Bocoum ◽  

Abstract Background In Senegal, studies focusing specifically on vaccination coverage with the Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the birth dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV zero dose) and the birth dose of hepatitis B (HepB-BD) vaccine are insufficient. This study aimed to highlight vaccination coverages with birth doses and factors associated with timely vaccination in Podor health district. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from June 19 to 22, 2020. The study population consisted of children aged 12 to 23 months of which 832 were included. A stratified two-stage cluster survey was carried out. The sources of data were home-based records (HBR), health facility registries (HFR) and parental recalls. Timely vaccination refers to any vaccination that has taken place within 24 h after birth. Descriptive analyzes, the chi-square test and logistic regression were performed. Results The crude vaccination coverages with BCG, OPV zero dose and HepB-BD were 95.2%, 88.3% and 88.1%, respectively. Vaccination coverages within 24 h after birth were estimated at 13.9%, 30% and 42.1%, respectively. The factors associated with timely HepB-BD are delivery in a health facility (AOR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.02–2.40), access to television (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.29), weighing (AOR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.97–8.53) and hospitalization of the newborn immediately after birth (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28–0.62). Conclusion Timely administration of birth doses is a challenge in the Podor health district. The solutions would be improving geographic access to health facilities, involving community health workers, raising awareness and integrating health services.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Sunny C. Okoroafor ◽  
Agbonkhese I. Oaiya ◽  
David Oviaesu ◽  
Adam Ahmat ◽  
Martin Osubor ◽  

Abstract Background Nigeria’s health sector aims to ensure that the right number of health workers that are qualified, skilled, and distributed equitably, are available for quality health service provision at all levels. Achieving this requires accurate and timely health workforce information. This informed the development of the Nigeria Health Workforce Registry (NHWR) based on the global, regional, and national strategies for strengthening the HRH towards achieving universal health coverage. This case study describes the process of conceptualizing and establishing the NHWR, and discusses the strategies for developing sustainable and scalable health workforce registries. Case presentation In designing the NHWR, a review of existing national HRH policies and guidelines, as well as reports of previous endeavors was done to learn what had been done previously and obtain the views of stakeholders on how to develop a scalable and sustainable registry. The findings indicated the need to review the architecture of the registry to align with other health information systems, develop a standardized data set and guidance documents for the registry including a standard operating procedure to ensure that a holistic process is adopted in data collection, management and use nationally. Learning from the findings, a conceptual framework was developed, a registry managed centrally by the Federal Ministry of Health was developed and decentralized, a standardized tool based on a national minimum data was developed and adopted nationally, a registry prototype was developed using iHRIS Manage and the registry governance functions were integrated into the health information system governance structures. To sustain the functionality of the NHWR, the handbook of the NHWR that comprised of an implementation guide, the standard operating procedure, and the basic user training manual was developed and the capacity of government staff was built on the operations of the registry. Conclusion In establishing a functional and sustainable registry, learning from experiences is essential in shaping acceptable, sustainable, and scalable approaches. Instituting governance structures that include and involve policymakers, health managers and users is of great importance in the design, planning, implementation, and decentralization stages. In addition, developing standardized tools based on the health system's needs and instituting supportable mechanisms for data flow and use for policy, planning, development, and management is essential.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 40-41
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos ◽  
Laura Campos Modesto

This manuscript about myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) based on published studies aims to enhance the awareness of primary health workers about this potentially serious condition that often poses diagnostic challenges. Two Brazilian, one Chilean, and one Turkish studies are commented on, and the role of imaging evaluations to establish the diagnosis is emphasized.

2022 ◽  
Ijeoma Uchenna Itanyi ◽  
Juliet Iwelunmor ◽  
John Olawepo ◽  
Semiu Gbadamosi ◽  
Alexandra Ezeonu ◽  

Abstract Background Poor maternal, newborn and child health outcomes remain a major public health challenge in Nigeria. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions such as patient-held smart cards have been proposed as effective solutions to improve maternal health outcomes. Our objectives were to assess the acceptability and experiences of pregnant women with the use of a patient-held smartcard for antenatal services in Nigeria. Methods Using focus group discussions, qualitative data were obtained from 35 pregnant women attending antenatal services in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Benue State, Nigeria. The audio-recorded data were transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis techniques such as the PEN-3 cultural model as a guide. Results The participants were 18-44 years of age (median age: 24 years), all were married and the majority were farmers. Most of the participants had accepted and used the smartcards for antenatal services. The most common positive perceptions about the smartcards were their ability to be used across multiple health facilities, the preference for storage of the women’s medical information on the smartcards compared to the usual paper-based system, and shorter waiting times at the clinics. Notable facilitators to using the smartcards were its provision at the “Baby showers” which were already acceptable to the women, access to free medical screenings, and ease of storage and retrieval of health records from the cards. Costs associated with health services was reported as a major barrier to using the smartcards. Support from health workers, program staff and family members, particularly spouses, encouraged the participants to use the smartcards. Conclusion These findings revealed that patient-held smart card for maternal health care services is acceptable by women utilizing antenatal services in Nigeria. Understanding perceptions, barriers, facilitators, and supportive systems that enhance the use of these smart cards may facilitate the development of lifesaving mobile health platforms that have the potential to achieve antenatal, delivery, and postnatal targets in a resource-limited setting.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (s1) ◽  
Syifa Hanifa ◽  
Diana Puspitasari ◽  
Cahyadi Ramadhan ◽  
Karina Oriza Herastuti

Due to limited availability, Indonesia’s coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination will be done in 4 stages until herd immunity has been reached. Yogyakarta, an education and tourist destination, needs to get a specific, spatial estimation of the exact need for COVID-19 vaccination without delay. This study sheds light on identifying which districts should be prioritized at each vaccination phase. Secondary data collected from provincial, and county-level statistical agencies were quantitatively calculated by the Z-Score method. The results indicate that the first phase of vaccination should prioritize Pengasih and Sentolo districts in Kulon Progo Regency, which have a large number of health workers; the districts of Depok, Banguntapan, Piyungan, Sewon, Wonosari, Gamping, Mlati and Ngaglik should be done in the second phase based on the fact that these districts have many public service officials as well as elderly people; Umbulharjo and Depok districts will be approached in the third phase since they have more vulnerable groups and facilities that may promote COVID- 19 transmission during their daily activities; while the fourth phase should focus on the districts of Banguntapan, Sewon, Kasihan, Gamping, Mlati, Depok, and Ngaglik due to the intensity of COVID-19 clusters discovered there. Overall, vaccination would be given the priority in the districts with the largest number of people in need, i.e., public service officers, elderly people and those likely to be exposed to the coronavirus causing COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1465-1474
Annisa Permatasari ◽  
Deny Salverra Yosy ◽  
Achirul Bakri ◽  
Ria Nova

Background. Most of heart defects in children do not show typical clinical symptoms. Ten percent of the cases are late detected. Echocardiography is an examination with high sensitivity and specificity in detecting heart defects in children, but it cannot be performed by all health workers, expensive and not always available in hospitals. Auscultation is an important part of a physical examination that inexpensive, easy examination, and becomes a competency of all doctors. The aim of this study to determine the accuracy of the screening method by listening to murmurs on heart auscultation by various levels of physician competence. Methods. This is a diagnostic test of 250 elementary school children held in the pediatric ward of dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang from September to November 2019. The auscultation examination was performed by three pediatrics resident from three stages (i.e. junior, middle and senior), followed by echocardiography examinations by a pediatric cardiologist. Results. The highest sensitivity of auscultation was found in senior resident, 42.4%, while the lowest was found in junior resident, 12.1%. The results of the kappa analysis of the cardiac auscultation examination on the three examiners showed a poor level of agreement on junior stage  compared to senior resident (k = 0.189; CI = 0.033-0.346) and the level of agreement was sufficient in junior stage compared to middle stage resident (k = 0.297; CI = 0.134 -0.461) and middle stage compared to senior resident (k = 0.301; CI = 0.147-0.456). Conclusion. Experience and length of learning will affect the accuracy of the auscultation examination in detecting heart defects in children.

Silvia Vicentini ◽  
Arianna Mercurio ◽  
Carolina Romascu ◽  
Martina Battaglia ◽  
Noemi Tribbia ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly impacted on healthcare services’ organization and healthcare workers’ mental health, increasing the risk of psychological symptoms and burnout. Italy has been one of the most affected countries, especially the northern regions, even with exceptions in some rural provinces. Aim: We chose to investigate the mental health conditions of healthcare workers operating in the rural province of Rovigo (a small town in Veneto, northern Italy), where relatively few deaths and contagions were reported during the pandemic, even if Veneto—globally—was one of the most affected regions of Italy. We wanted to verify the psychological outcomes of health workers operating in a context where the impact of the pandemic appeared to be relatively mild. Methods: Through an online survey, we investigated perceived difficulties at work and in daily life, perceived loneliness and social support, coping strategies, and level of psychological distress (sample size: 749; mean age = 48.04 years, SD = 10.66). The questionnaire had both open- (2) and close-ended questions (5 single-choice and 13 multiple-choice). We verified possible associations between sex, age group, work department and percentage of responses with chi-square tests of independence on each question. Data cleaning excluded all contradictory answers from the multiple-choice questions from the analyses (final sample size: 640). Results: Frontliners and non-frontliners reported a similar experience of the COVID-19 pandemic (without significant differences in perceived difficulties, coping strategies and sources of support). Nevertheless, they still reported various forms of negative emotions (e.g., helplessness—40.94%; sadness—36.56%; frustration—32.66%) and lack of support from the health organization (especially frontliners—28.72%). However, psychological help was scarcely requested. Conclusions: Despite the province not being massively affected by the pandemic, healthcare workers felt the need for clearer and more supportive guidance. They seem to perceive collective opportunities to share needs and difficulties as more useful than individual interventions (as those provided by the ad hoc created listening service).

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