gut microbiome
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2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 121-127
Gian Marco Luna ◽  
Grazia Marina Quero ◽  
Fotini Kokou ◽  
Konstantinos Kormas

Giuseppe Privitera ◽  
Nitish Rana ◽  
Franco Scaldaferri ◽  
Alessandro Armuzzi ◽  
Theresa T. Pizarro

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly forms of cancer in Western countries. Inflammation is a well-known driver of colonic carcinogenesis; however, its role in CRC extends beyond colitis-associated cancer. Over the last decades, numerous associations between intestinal dysbiosis and CRC have been identified, with more recent studies providing mechanistic evidence of a causative relationship. Nonetheless, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise implications of microbiome alterations in the pathogenesis of CRC. Research confirms the importance of a bidirectional crosstalk between the gut microbiome and the mucosal immune system in which inflammasomes, multiprotein complexes that can sense “danger signals,” serve as conduits by detecting microbial signals and activating innate immune responses, including the induction of microbicidal activities that can alter microbiome composition. Current evidence strongly supports an active role for this “inflammasome–microbiome axis” in the initiation and development of CRC. Furthermore, the gasdermin (GSDM) family of proteins, which are downstream effectors of the inflammasome that are primarily known for their role in pyroptosis, have been recently linked to CRC pathogenesis. These findings, however, do not come without controversy, as pyroptosis is reported to exert both anti- and protumorigenic functions. Furthermore, the multi-faceted interactions between GSDMs and the gut microbiome, as well as their importance in CRC, have only been superficially investigated. In this review, we summarize the existing literature supporting the importance of the inflammasome–microbiota axis, as well as the activation and function of GSDMs, to gain a better mechanistic understanding of CRC pathogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Zhongzhi Sun ◽  
Wenju Wang ◽  
Leyuan Li ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Zhibin Ning ◽  

The gut microbiome composition and function are associated with health and diseases. Sweeten-ers are widely used food additives, although many studies using animal models have linked sweetener consumption to gut microbial changes and health issues. Whether sweeteners directly change the human gut microbiome functionality remains largely unknown. In this study, we sys-tematically investigated the responses of five human gut microbiomes to 21 common sweeteners, using an approach combining high-throughput ex vivo microbiome culturing and metaproteomics to quantify functional changes in different taxa. Hierarchical clustering based on metaproteomic responses of individual microbiomes resulted in two clusters. The first cluster was composed of non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) and two sugar alcohols with shorter carbon backbones (4-5 carbon atoms), and the second cluster was composed of sugar alcohols with longer carbon backbones. The metaproteomic functional responses of the second cluster were similar to the prebiotic fructooligosaccharides and kestose, indicating that these sugar alcohol-type sweeteners have potential prebiotic functions. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the direct effects of commonly used sweeteners on the functions of the human gut microbiome using a func-tional metaproteomics approach, improving our understanding of the roles of sweeteners on mi-crobiome-associated human health and disease issues.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 352
Carolina F. F. A. Costa ◽  
Benedita Sampaio-Maia ◽  
Ricardo Araujo ◽  
Diana S. Nascimento ◽  
Joana Ferreira-Gomes ◽  

Fibrosis is a pathological process associated with most chronic inflammatory diseases. It is defined by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and can affect nearly every tissue and organ system in the body. Fibroproliferative diseases, such as intestinal fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, progressive kidney disease and cardiovascular disease, often lead to severe organ damage and are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, for which there are currently no effective therapies available. In the past decade, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the gut microbiome as a major player in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune system, with severe implications in the pathogenesis of multiple immune-mediated disorders. Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with the development and progression of fibrotic processes in various organs and is predicted to be a potential therapeutic target for fibrosis management. In this review we summarize the state of the art concerning the crosstalk between intestinal microbiota and organ fibrosis, address the relevance of diet in different fibrotic diseases and discuss gut microbiome-targeted therapeutic approaches that are current being explored.

Jiefei Wang ◽  
W. Seth Childers

The multifaceted and heterogeneous nature of depression presents challenges in pinpointing treatments. Among these contributions are the interconnections between the gut microbiome and neurological function termed the gut-brain axis. A diverse range of microbiome-produced metabolites interact with host signaling and metabolic pathways through this gut-brain axis relationship. Therefore, biosensor detection of gut metabolites offers the potential to quantify the microbiome’s contributions to depression. Herein we review synthetic biology strategies to detect signals that indicate gut-brain axis dysregulation that may contribute to depression. We also highlight future challenges in developing living diagnostics of microbiome conditions influencing depression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gianluca Scuderi ◽  
Emidio Troiani ◽  
Angelo Maria Minnella

The term microbiome means not only a complex ecosystem of microbial species that colonize our body but also their genome and the surrounding environment in which they live. Recent studies support the existence of a gut-retina axis involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic progressive ocular diseases, including age-related macular disorders. This review aims to underline the importance of the gut microbiome in relation to ocular health. After briefly introducing the characteristics of the gut microbiome in terms of composition and functions, the role of gut microbiome dysbiosis, in the development or progression of retinal diseases, is highlighted, focusing on the relationship between gut microbiome composition and retinal health based on the recently investigated gut-retina axis.

2022 ◽  
Elizaveta V. Starikova ◽  
Ksenia M. Klimina ◽  
Anastasia O. Eudokimova ◽  
Ksenia A. Yeruslanova ◽  
Denis A. Gudkov ◽  

The microbial community of the human intestine is important for maintaining human health. It has been reported that the gut microbiome changes with age, and it can be enrichedwith certain beneficial bacteria while also losing certain commensal bacteria.Little is known about the gut virome of long-livers. Our research aimed to extract, sequence and analyze the viral fraction of long-livers’ gut microbiota in comparison with those of young adults and the elderly. We were thereby able to characterize the gut virome profiles and viral diversity of three age groups. Keywords: aging, gut microbiome, viral metagenomics, bacteriophages

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262057
Claire A. Woodall ◽  
Luke J. McGeoch ◽  
Alastair D. Hay ◽  
Ashley Hammond

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common and can cause gastrointestinal tract symptoms and changes to the gut microbiota, yet these effects are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the reported evidence of gut microbiome alterations in patients with a RTI compared to healthy controls (PROSPERO: CRD42019138853). We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and the Clinical Trial Database for studies published between January 2015 and June 2021. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were human cohorts describing the gut microbiome in patients with an RTI compared to healthy controls and the infection was caused by a viral or bacterial pathogen. Dual data screening and extraction with narrative synthesis was performed. We identified 1,593 articles and assessed 11 full texts for inclusion. Included studies (some nested) reported gut microbiome changes in the context of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (n = 5), influenza (H1N1 and H7N9) (n = 2), Tuberculosis (TB) (n = 4), Community-Acquired Pneumonia CAP (n = 2) and recurrent RTIs (rRTI) (n = 1) infections. We found studies of patients with an RTI compared to controls reported a decrease in gut microbiome diversity (Shannon) of 1.45 units (95% CI, 0.15–2.50 [p, <0.0001]) and a lower abundance of taxa (p, 0.0086). Meta-analysis of the Shannon value showed considerable heterogeneity between studies (I2, 94.42). Unbiased analysis displayed as a funnel plot revealed a depletion of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus and enrichment of Enterococcus. There was an important absence in the lack of cohort studies reporting gut microbiome changes and high heterogeneity between studies may be explained by variations in microbiome methods and confounder effects. Further human cohort studies are needed to understand RTI-induced gut microbiome changes to better understand interplay between microbes and respiratory health.

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