gender and age
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
María José Hernández-Serrano ◽  
Barbara Jones ◽  
Paula Renés-Arellano ◽  
Rosalynn A. Campos Ortuño

This study analyses self-presentation practices and profiles among Spanish teenagers on Instagram and TikTok. Both of these online spaces prioritise and promote visual publications, are structured to allow feedback on self-presentation, and offer the user filters both to control self-image and to target specific audiences. Three research questions guided the methodological process for the twofold analysis of self-presentation practices on social networks: an exploratory factor analysis to identify latent factors among these practices; and a descriptive analysis of the profiles identified by gender and age. Results indicate that adolescents’ self-presentation practices were related to three different factors: social validation; authenticity; and image control. One of the most outstanding results is that self-presentation practices could be less guided by social feedback, since the number of followers or likes was irrelevant for most adolescents, and that adolescents increasingly tend to be guided by innovative predispositions of truthfulness. In turn, conclusions suggest that teens need to be equipped with suitable self-representation practices for safe and sustainable identity narratives on social networks, since the global COVID-19 pandemic has exponentially increased both the usage and the time spent on social networking sites, enlarging the availability of spaces for adolescents to express themselves and build their identities through different self-representation practices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Volkan Zeybek ◽  
Hasan Yetiş ◽  
Abdülkadir İzci ◽  
Kemalettin Acar

Abstract Background Although suicide rates and methods used may vary according to society, gender, and age there are epidemiological studies reporting that suicide rates increase with advanced age in all societies, particularly accelerating after the age of 65 years. This study aimed to investigate the demographic data and suicide characteristics—such as the location and method, among others—of the elderly suicide deaths among forensic deaths between 2011 and 2020 in Denizli, Turkey. Results It was determined that elderly suicides constituted 13.8% of all suicides and increased gradually over the years during the 10-year period. The vast majority of cases were male (82%). It has been observed that hanging is the most frequently used method. It is also noteworthy that although firearm suicide among men was the second most common method, women do not choose this method at all. The majority of elderly suicides (88.5%) in Denizli occurred in the home and its annexes. Conclusions Suicide prevention programmes should promote the elderly to benefit widely from social and health services. Therefore, there is a need to include widespread home care services and firearms regulations in prevention programmes.

Mohamed Ali Sawas ◽  
Linah Essam Arabi ◽  
Samirah Hashim Jabir ◽  
Reem Nawaf AlSaadi ◽  
Mohammed Ahmed Al Nassir ◽  

Estimates show that the prevalence of mandibular dental anterior crowding is high and might be up to 40%. The etiology of the condition has been multifactorial and evidence regarding the impact of mandibular third molars is still controversial. We discussed the potential role that impacted teeth (particularly mandibular third molars) might have in developing dental arch crowding. Evidence from different original studies and reviews regarding the impact of lower third molars on dental crowding was controversial. However, most of these studies showed that the correlation between these events was insignificant and additional studies might be needed for further validation. We have also identified many factors that can lead to dental arch crowding among the relevant studies in the literature. These factors might include general factors (including gender and age), skeletal factors (including malocclusion and growth of jaws) and dental factors (including primary tooth loss and tooth crown size), all of which were extensively discussed in the current study. Accordingly, further attention should also be paid to studying these factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Begoña Espejo ◽  
Marta Martín-Carbonell ◽  
Irene Checa ◽  
Yadid Paternina ◽  
Martha Fernández-Daza ◽  

Introduction: The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin in 1985, comprises five items with seven response options in terms of agreement–disagreement. Recently, there has been a suggestion to reduce the response options of the SWLS to optimize its applicability in different cultural contexts.Objective: The study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the SWLS with five response options in the Colombian population. Specifically, we studied the dimensionality, invariance by gender and age (among a group of adolescents and emerging adults under 25 years and a group of adults of intermediate age and established adulthood under 59 years), convergent validity (with optimism), and divergent (with pessimism) and concurrent validity with other measures of well-being (flourishing, positive, and negative affects).Methodology: This project was a cross-sectional study using a non-probabilistic sample of the general population. Participants were included if they identified themselves as Colombian and were at least 18 years of age. The final sample comprised 1,255 participants. The average age was 25.62 years (SD = 8.60) ranging from 18 to 67 years of age, and 35.8% of the participants were men. In addition to SWLS, we used the Flourishing Scale (FS), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE).Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.842), composite reliability (0.851), and average variance extracted (0.537) showed very good values. CFA was conducted to test the one-dimensional structure of FS, showing excellent goodness of fit [χ(5)2 = 15.774, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.985, RMSEA = 0.042, 90% RMSEA CI (0.020, 0.066), and SRMR = 0.016]. The correlations calculated among life satisfaction (SWLS) with flourishing (FS), positive and negative affects (SPANE), optimism, and pessimism (LOT-R) were statistically significant and as expected. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender and age were confirmed. Percentiles were provided for the total score and for age.Conclusions: The SWLS with five response options has adequate psychometric properties in the Colombian population, and the use of this version (with 5 response options) is recommended due to its greater applicability.

Tamás Madarász ◽  
Enikő Kontor ◽  
Emese Antal ◽  
Gyula Kasza ◽  
Dávid Szakos ◽  

Coronavirus disease (SARSCoV-2) appeared in 2019 was confirmed as pandemic by the WHO on 11 March 2020. Stay-at-home order had an impact on consumers’ food purchase habits, as people around the world were able to leave their homes solely in extremely severe or urgent cases. In our research, we delve into the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ food purchase habits. The research involved 3000 consumers during the first wave of coronavirus. The sample represents the Hungarian population by gender and age. To achieve the research goals, we applied multivariate statistical tools. The findings suggest that the pandemic could not change consumer attitude significantly, but the order of factors influencing purchases changed. Consumer motivation factors were organized into four well-distinguished factors: Healthy, domestic, and environmentally friendly choice; Usual taste and quality; Reasonable price; Shelf life. Due to the lack of outstanding data during segmentation, we developed four segments by hierarchical cluster analysis: Health- and environment-conscious women; Price sensitive young people; Taste-oriented men; Quality-oriented intellectuals. The results confirm that food manufacturers and traders need to be prepared for further restrictions in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 853-859
K. A. Zhbanov ◽  
A. A. Shchendrygina ◽  
E. A. Zheleznykh ◽  
E. V. Privalova ◽  
A. Y. Suvorov ◽  

Aim. To determine the median levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; endothelium-derived growth factor and the natural agonist of the ERBB3 and ERBB4 receptors) NRG-1 in healthy volunteers and to study the associations of NRG-1 levels with gender and age.Material and Methods. Ninety seven healthy participants were enrolled (median age of 44 [32-54], men 45 men [46.4%]). The following age groups were identified: 20-29 y.о. (n=20, men – 50.0%),  30-39  y.о.  (n=21,  men  –  52.4%),  40-49  y.о.  (n=22,  men  –  45.5%),  50-59  y.о. (n=22, men – 36.4%); 60-69 y.о. (n=12, men – 50.0%). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrolment, standard laboratory tests were performed, and NRG-1 levels were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA.Results. In the cohort of 97 healthy participants the median value of NRG-1 was 0.3 [0.121-2.24] ng/ml. NRG-1 levels did not differ significantly between men and women (p=0.145), indicating that NRG-1 levels are not influenced by gender. The levels of NRG-1 were similar in the different age groups: age 20-29 years=0.26 [0.17-0.37] ng/ml; age 30-39=0.24 [0.1-0.39] ng/ml; age 40-49=0.31 [0.19-1.15] ng/ml; age 50-59=0.37  [0.19-1.0] ng/ml; age 60-69=0.4 [0.13-0.81] ng/ml. Correlation analysis between NRG-1 levels and route blood measurements (haemoglobin, lipids, glucose, creatinine, and uretic acid) did not show significant associations.Conclusions. In this study, the median value of NRG-1 plasma levels were determined. The results of the study show that age and gender had no influence on NRG-1 values.

David M. Presby ◽  
Emily R. Capodilupo

Although vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been proven safe and effective, transient side-effects lasting 24-48 hours post-vaccination have been reported. To better understand the subjective and objective response to COVID-19 vaccination, we conducted a retrospective analysis on 69619 subscribers to a wrist-worn biometric device (WHOOP Inc, Boston, MA, USA) who received either the AstraZeneca, Janssen/Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, or Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. The WHOOP device measures resting heart rate (RHR), heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate (RR), and sleep architecture, and these physiological measures were normalized to the same day of the week, one week prior to vaccination. Averaging across vaccines, RHR, RR, and percent sleep derived from light sleep were elevated on the first night following vaccination and returned to baseline within four nights post-vaccination. When statistical differences were observed between doses on the first night post-vaccination, larger deviations in physiological measures were observed following the first dose of AstraZeneca and the second dose of Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech. When statistical differences were observed between age groups or gender on the first night post-vaccination, larger deviations in physiological measures were observed in younger populations and in females (compared to males). When combining self-reported symptoms (fatigue, muscle aches, headache, chills, or fever) with the objectively measured physiological parameters, we found that self-reporting fever or chills had the strongest association with deviations in physiological measures following vaccination. In summary, these results suggest that COVID-19 vaccines temporarily affect cardiovascular, respiratory, and sleep physiology, and that dose, gender, and age affect the physiological response to vaccination.

Janni Leung ◽  
Gary Chan ◽  
Daniel Stjepanović ◽  
Jack Yiu Chak Chung ◽  
Wayne Hall ◽  

Abstract Rationale There has been increasing attention on cannabis use for medical purposes, but there is currently a lack of data on its epidemiology. Objectives To examine the epidemiology of self-reported cannabis use for medical purposes by (1) estimating its prevalence, (2) comparing gender and age differences, and (3) investigating what reasons they were used to manage. Methods Participants included 27,169 respondents (aged 16–65) who completed Wave 1 of The International Cannabis Policy Study (ICPS) conducted across Canada and the USA in 2018 via online surveys. Cannabis policy conditions were “US legal–recreational” (legal for both recreational and medical uses), “US legal–medical only”, “US illegal”, and “Canada–medical only”. Results The overall prevalence of self-reported ever cannabis use for medical purposes was 27%, with similar rates by sex and the highest prevalence in young adults. Prevalence was higher in US legal–recreational states (34%) than US illegal states (23%), US legal–medical only states (25%), and Canada (25%). The most common physical health reasons include use to manage pain (53%), sleep (46%), headaches/migraines (35%), appetite (22%), and nausea/vomiting (21%). For mental health reasons, the most common were for anxiety (52%), depression (40%), and PTSD/trauma (17%). There were 11% who reported using cannabis for managing other drug or alcohol use and 4% for psychosis. Conclusions A substantial proportion of the North American population self-reported cannabis use for medical purposes for a variety of medical reasons, including those living in jurisdictions without legal markets. Further research is needed to understand the safety and efficacy of these forms of medical cannabis use.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
You Wu ◽  
Ming-hui Wang ◽  
Tao Yang ◽  
Tian-yu Qin ◽  
Ling-ling Qin ◽  

Cinnamic acid (AC) and cinnamic aldehyde (AL) are two chemicals enriched in cinnamon and have been previously proved to improve glucolipid metabolism, thus ameliorating metabolic disorders. In this study, we employed transcriptomes and proteomes on AC and AL treated db/db mice in order to explore the underlying mechanisms for their effects. Db/db mice were divided into three groups: the control group, AC group and AL group. Gender- and age-matched wt/wt mice were used as a normal group. After 4 weeks of treatments, mice were sacrificed, and liver tissues were used for further analyses. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were performed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. DEPs were further verified by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The results suggested that AC and AL share similar mechanisms, and they may improve glucolipid metabolism by improving mitochondrial functions, decreasing serotonin contents and upregulating autophagy mediated lipid clearance. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms of AC and AL on hepatic transcriptomes and proteomes in disrupted metabolic situations and lays a foundation for future experiments.

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