mental health outcomes
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2022 ◽  
Marlee Bower ◽  
Scarlett Smout ◽  
Amarina Donohoe-Bales ◽  
Lily Teesson ◽  
Eleisha Lauria ◽  

Introduction: Vast available international evidence has investigated the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review aims to synthesise evidence, identifying populations and characteristics associated with poor mental health.Methods: A meta-review of pooled prevalence of anxiety and depression, with subgroup analyses for the general population, healthcare workers (HCW) and COVID-19 patients; and a meta-synthesis of systematic reviews to collate evidence on associated factors and further mental disorders. Databases searched included Scopus, Embase, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE dated to May 2021. Eligibility criteria included systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses, published post-November 2019, reporting data in English on mental health outcomes during the pandemic.Results: Eighty-one systematic reviews were included, 51 of which incorporated meta-analysis. Meta-review overall anxiety prevalence was 29% (95%CI: 27–31%, I2: 99.83%), with subgroup prevalence as 35% (95%CI: 23–47%, I2: 97.4%) in COVID-19 patients, 29% in HCW (95%CI: 25– 32, I2: 99.8%) and 28% in the general population (95%CI: 25–31%, I2: 99.9%). Meta-review overall depression prevalence was 28% (95%CI: 26–30%, I2: 99.7), with subgroup prevalence as 30% (95%CI: 7–60%, I2: 99.8%) in COVID-19 patients, 28% (95%CI: 25–31%, I2: 99.7%) in HCW and 27% (95%CI: 25–30, I2: 99.8%) in the general population. Meta-synthesis found many experienced psychological distress and PTSD/PTSS during COVID-19, but pooled prevalence ranged substantially. Fear of, proximity to, or confirmed COVID-19 infection; undergoing quarantine; and COVID-19-related news exposure were associated with adverse mental health outcomes. Amongst other factors, people who are younger, female, LGBTIQ, pregnant, parents or experiencing low social support, financial issues or socio-economic disadvantage, tended to have poorer mental health during the pandemic period.Conclusions: Despite high volumes of reviews, the diversity of findings and dearth of longitudinal studies within reviews means clear links between COVID-19 and mental health are not available, although existing evidence indicates probable associations.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261039
Jack L. Turban ◽  
Dana King ◽  
Julia Kobe ◽  
Sari L. Reisner ◽  
Alex S. Keuroghlian

Objective To examine associations between recalled access to gender-affirming hormones (GAH) during adolescence and mental health outcomes among transgender adults in the U.S. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, a cross-sectional non-probability sample of 27,715 transgender adults in the U.S. Using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders, we examined associations between access to GAH during early adolescence (age 14–15), late adolescence (age 16–17), or adulthood (age ≥18) and adult mental health outcomes, with participants who desired but never accessed GAH as the reference group. Results 21,598 participants (77.9%) reported ever desiring GAH. Of these, 8,860 (41.0%) never accessed GAH, 119 (0.6%) accessed GAH in early adolescence, 362 (1.7%) accessed GAH in late adolescence, and 12,257 (56.8%) accessed GAH in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounders, accessing GAH during early adolescence (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2–0.6, p < .0001), late adolescence (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.7, p < .0001), or adulthood (aOR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7–0.8, p < .0001) was associated with lower odds of past-year suicidal ideation when compared to desiring but never accessing GAH. In post hoc analyses, access to GAH during adolescence (ages 14–17) was associated with lower odds of past-year suicidal ideation (aOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6–0.9, p = .0007) when compared to accessing GAH during adulthood. Conclusion Access to GAH during adolescence and adulthood is associated with favorable mental health outcomes compared to desiring but not accessing GAH.

Sean R. McClellan ◽  
Meaghan Hunt ◽  
Lauren E. W. Olsho ◽  
Amrita Dasgupta ◽  
Mifta Chowdhury ◽  

2022 ◽  
Sandrine Metzger ◽  
Pablo Gracia

Previous studies have omitted a dynamic analysis to examine systematically how the transition into parenthood shapes gendered mental health trajectories. This paper adopts a life-course approach to study gender differences in how the transition into parenthood affects multiple indicators of parents’ mental health over time, using high-quality panel data from the ‘UK Household Longitudinal Study’ (2009-2020). Results from fixed effects models with discrete-time trends show that: (1) mothers’ mental health is more largely affected –both positively and negatively– by the transition to parenthood than fathers’; (2) mothers’ overall mental health shows a distinctive positive anticipation and adaptation around childbirth, while fathers show insignificant changes in this transition; (3) becoming a parent decreases the risks of depressive moods for both genders, with long-lasting effects for mothers; (4) stress and energy levels show a deterioration during care-intensive years for both parents, particularly among women; (5) mothers from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experience lower mental health outcomes during care-intensive years. Overall, this study demonstrates the relevance of parenthood transitions in shaping gendered effects on specific mental health outcomes, with distinct implications for women and men over time, as well as across socioeconomic groups.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003887
Victoria Simms ◽  
Helen A. Weiss ◽  
Silindweyinkosi Chinoda ◽  
Abigail Mutsinze ◽  
Sarah Bernays ◽  

Background Adolescents living with HIV have poor virological suppression and high prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). In Zimbabwe, the Zvandiri adolescent peer support programme is effective at improving virological suppression. We assessed the effect of training Zvandiri peer counsellors known as Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters (CATS) in problem-solving therapy (PST) on virological suppression and mental health outcomes. Methods and findings Sixty clinics were randomised 1:1 to either normal Zvandiri peer counselling or a peer counsellor trained in PST. In January to March 2019, 842 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years and living with HIV who screened positive for CMDs were enrolled (375 (44.5%) male and 418 (49.6%) orphaned of at least one parent). The primary outcome was virological nonsuppression (viral load ≥1,000 copies/mL). Secondary outcomes were symptoms of CMDs measured with the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ ≥8) and depression measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 ≥10) and health utility score using the EQ-5D. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for clinic-level clustering. Case reviews and focus group discussions were used to determine feasibility of intervention delivery. At baseline, 35.1% of participants had virological nonsuppression and 70.3% had SSQ≥8. After 48 weeks, follow-up was 89.5% for viral load data and 90.9% for other outcomes. Virological nonsuppression decreased in both arms, but there was no evidence of an intervention effect (prevalence of nonsuppression 14.7% in the Zvandiri-PST arm versus 11.9% in the Zvandiri arm; AOR = 1.29; 95% CI 0.68, 2.48; p = 0.44). There was strong evidence of an apparent effect on common mental health outcomes (SSQ ≥8: 2.4% versus 10.3% [AOR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.08, 0.46; p < 0.001]; PHQ-9 ≥10: 2.9% versus 8.8% [AOR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.78; p = 0.01]). Prevalence of EQ-5D index score <1 was 27.6% versus 38.9% (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.31, 1.03; p = 0.06). Qualitative analyses found that CATS-observed participants had limited autonomy or ability to solve problems. In response, the CATS adapted the intervention to focus on empathic problem discussion to fit adolescents’ age, capacity, and circumstances, which was beneficial. Limitations include that cost data were not available and that the mental health tools were validated in adult populations, not adolescents. Conclusions PST training for CATS did not add to the benefit of peer support in reducing virological nonsuppression but led to improved symptoms of CMD and depression compared to standard Zvandiri care among adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe. Active involvement of caregivers and strengthened referral structures could increase feasibility and effectiveness. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201810756862405.

Amy N. Luckenbaugh ◽  
Christopher J. D. Wallis ◽  
Li-Ching Huang ◽  
Daniela Wittmann ◽  
Zachary Klaassen ◽  

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