ottoman empire
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Charlotta Forss

This article explores the interplay between knowledge and agency in early modern diplomacy. Focusing on the power dynamics of early modern empire through a case study of a Swedish embassy to the Ottoman Empire in 1657–58, the article shows how agency and knowledge interlinked throughout the diplomatic mission. At the centre of the study is Claes Rålamb, a Swedish nobleman who was sent to Istanbul to secure an alliance between Sweden and the Ottoman vassal state Transylvania. Rålamb’s journey to, and stay in, Istanbul was framed by global political developments, yet, it was also directly influenced by local customs and personal connections. In particular, Rålamb’s ability to act as an agent of the Swedish Empire was shaped by the difficulties of attaining reliable information. Moreover, the framework within which he was able to act changed between different stages of the journey. This makes the intersection between knowledge and agency a fruitful focal point for examining early modern empire, going beyond traditional national frameworks and categories of actors. Rålamb was sent out as an envoy of the Swedish empire, yet the meaning of that position changed constantly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 04 (01) ◽  
pp. 488-502

This research deals with the issue of the Moriscan refugee crisis after the fall of Andalusia to the Spanish in 1492, and the brutal policies they carried out against the refugees. The research also deals with the policy of the Ottoman Empire towards this ordeal, which represented the largest global humanitarian crisis during the 16th and 17th centuries AD. The Ottoman Empire played a major role in the process of saving these Muslim and Jewish refugees, and their homeland in different parts of the Ottoman geography. The Ottoman Empire also succeeded in adopting an integrative policy for these refugees that took into account their social and sectarian specificities, as well as the societal privacy of the new settlement areas. This policy has contributed to creating dynamism and vitality in these areas, and transforming Andalusian refugees into an active force on all cultural, social and economic levels. On the other hand, the Spanish and European refugee crisis revealed the mentality of the issue of religious freedom and the lack of recognition of other religious sects. At the same time, this crisis reflected the Ottoman mentality towards the issue of non-Muslim minorities and how the state interacted with them, and its ability to manage diversity within the Ottoman society. In this context, we will try in this research to present a different analytical approach to the issue of Andalusian Muslim and Jewish refugees, as well as knowing the strategy of the Ottoman Empire towards it and the backgrounds that motivate it. This topic will be addressed through four axes as follows: -First: Andalusia and its importance in attracting immigrants in the Middle Ages -Second: The historical and political circumstances in which the Andalusian refugee crisis arose -Third: The Andalusian refugee crisis and the position of the Ottoman Empire on it -Fourth: The Ottoman Empire's strategy towards the refugee crisis -Fifth: The policy of the Ottomans towards the refugees from Andalusia.

2022 ◽  
pp. 209-228
Vemund Aarbakke

This chapter intends to outline the place of Macedonia in the nation-building process that took place in South-East Europe with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Macedonia became the place where national aspirations converged and came into conflict with each other. This gave it a special role in the national narratives of Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece both internally and in foreign politics. The (federal) Macedonian state that emerged after WWII sought to carve out its own trajectory in a space that was already occupied physically and ideologically by its neighbours. This led to a conflict that lurked under the surface for most of the Cold War but came out in the open with the dissolution of Yugoslavia. The chapter seeks to clarify some of the central issues related to Macedonian nationality and minorities in the Balkan and European context.

2022 ◽  
Vol 04 (01) ◽  
pp. 557-576
Sahira Hussein MAHMOUD

Most researchers focus on the land wars of the conflicting countries in ‎ancient, contemporary, or modern history, which gives naval battles and ‎their effects a second role in the causes of victory or defeat. Ottoman naval ‎power and its battles are no exception. Through my study of most of the ‎Ottoman wars in the ancient Ottoman and modern Turkish sources, I found ‎that the impact of naval warfare is no less important than land wars, ‎although they were not the direct causes of victory or defeat. Therefore, my ‎research came to show the naval battles of the Ottoman Empire and to shed ‎light on their causes and consequences. ‎

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