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Sarah-Maria Schober

Although our systems of thought have long accustomed us to differentiate sharply between the human world of ‘culture’ and the animal world of ‘nature’, both sides of this very influential dichotomy are entangled in complex and indissoluble ways. The civet cat and its very special perfume—civet—provide a perfect example of this ‘merging’. The idea of taming the untamable, expressed in paintings of civet cats and textual sources, has been especially fruitful and became a promising preoccupation especially for artists like Joris Hoefnagel to enrich their work with an intellectual hybridity. The article shows how—in painting, perfume, and writing—nature and culture complemented one another, rather than standing in opposition. Owing to the animal’s odour, its mysterious nature, and debates about its (un)tamability, the image of the civet cat served as a focal point through which early modern Europeans wrestled with and redefined the realms of human and animal, of art and science, and of culture and nature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
pp. 101-118
Miral-Sabry AlAshry

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the Egyptian Personal Data Protection Law No. 151 for 2020, as well as its implications for journalistic practice. More specifically, the focal point of this study was to explore how Egyptian journalists interpret the law and its implication for press freedom in Egypt. The underpinning theoretical framework was informed by the Authoritarian school of thought. Questionnaires were distributed to 199 journalists from both independent and semi-governmental representing thirteen official newspapers of Egypt, while in-depth interviews were done with (3) Editors, (4) journalists, and (3) human rights lawyers. The finding of the study indicated that the government placed restrictions on journalists by using Data Protection Law relating to the media. That law is negatively impacting journalists and media houses. It was clear from the findings that the journalists see the law as an obstacle to media independence, as it allows the government to exercise greater information control through digital policy and puts rules of regulation against journalists.

2022 ◽  
Tong Wang ◽  
Junfeng Jiang ◽  
Kun Liu ◽  
Shuang Wang ◽  
Panpan Niu ◽  

Abstract We proposed and demonstrated a flexible, endoscopic, and minimally invasive coherent anti-Raman Stokes scattering (CARS) measurement method for single-cell application, employing a tapered optical fiber probe. A few-mode fiber (FMF), whose generated four-wave mixing band is out of CARS signals, was selected to fabricate tapered optical fiber probes, deliver CARS excitation pulses, and collect CARS signals. The adiabatic tapered fiber probe with a diameter of 11.61 µm can focus CARS excitation lights without mismatch at the focal point. The measurements for proof-of-concept were made with methanol, ethanol, cyclohexane, and acetone injected into simulated cells. The experimental results show that the tapered optical fiber probe can detect carbon-hydrogen (C–H) bond-rich substances and their concentration. To our best knowledge, this optical fiber probe provides the minimum size among probes for detecting CARS signals. These results pave the way for minimally invasive live-cell detection in the future.

2022 ◽  
pp. 26-33
V. M. Chertok ◽  
A. E. Kotsyuba ◽  
I. A. Khramova

Cellular-molecular mechanisms and factors, regulating uterus vascularization are also a focal point ensuring reproduction processes. In the process of angiogenesis endothelium expresses a number of receptors of growth factors and ligands which control main stages of the cellular makeup during vascular walls formation process. It in turn supports proliferation and reparation of the endometrium during menstrual cycle and prepares for the implantation and placentation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 144078332110669
Magdalena Arias Cubas ◽  
Taghreed Jamal Al-deen ◽  
Fethi Mansouri

The everyday practices and socio-cultural identities of migrant youth have become a focal point of contemporary sociological research in Western countries of immigration. This article engages with the concept of transcultural capital to frame the possibilities and opportunities embodied in young migrants’ multi-layered identities and cross-cultural competencies in the context of an increasingly interconnected and diverse world. By re-conceptualising diversity and difference as agentic, transformational capitals to be valued, fostered and mobilised, this transcultural approach brings to the fore the multitude of skills, networks and knowledge that migrant youth access and develop through multiple cultural repertoires. Drawing on the narratives of migrant youth in Melbourne (Australia), this article argues that access to different – and not necessarily oppositional – cultural systems opens up a space for understanding the ability of migrant youth to instigate, negotiate and maintain valuable socio-cultural connections in ways that recognise, disrupt and transform social hierarchies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-24
Mantheme Florina Matolo ◽  
Awelani M Rambuda

The aim of this research was to evaluate the application of an inclusive education policy on screening, identification, assessment and support of learners (SIAS) policy at South African schools. The research explores how educators screen, identify, and assess barriers to learning as well as support learners with barriers. The variables on the screening, identification, assessment and support of learners were chosen as a focal point of this study mainly because they were all variables contained in the policy which must be mastered by the educators during the policy application. A survey design of quantitative research approach was followed. Document analysis of the SIAS 2014 policy document was done over the target population of educators in primary and secondary schools. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 320 male and female respondents from both primary and secondary schools. The quantitative data were collected using a seven-point semantic differential scale which elicited responses from a total of 250 educators. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data on the educators’ responses about the extent to which they implemented the inclusive education policy. Statistical data revealed that the implementation of the policy was modest. Educators do not effectively use the screen resources such as the learner profile to screen barriers and the Support Needs Assessment 1 is not effectively used to identify and assess the barriers experienced by learners. As a result, support of learners was found to be inadequate. An independent-samples t-test revealed that there was statistically significant difference between the means of primary and secondary schools in the application of SIAS 2014 policy. This research recommends that the teacher training institutions should capacitate aspiring educators about inclusive education policies such as the SIAS 2014 policy rationale, principles, and how the policy is to be effectively implemented at schools.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Ciara Downey ◽  

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia, characterized by initial memory impairment and progressive cognitive decline. The exact cause of AD is not yet completely understood. However, the presence of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is often cited as the main causative agent in AD pathogenesis. In accordance with the amyloid hypothesis, Aβ accumulation initially occurs 15-20 years prior to the development of clinical symptoms. Current therapies focus on the prodromal and preclinical stages of AD due to past treatment failures involving patients with mild to moderate AD. Passive immunization via exogenous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) administration has emerged as a promising anti-Aβ treatment in AD. This is reinforced by the recent approval of the mAb, aducanumab. mAbs have differential selectivity in their epitopes, each recognising different conformations of Aβ. In this way, various Aβ accumulative species can be targeted. mAbs directed against Aβ oligomers, the most neurotoxic species, are producing encouraging clinical results. Through understanding the process by which mAbs target the amyloid cascade, therapeutics could be developed to clear Aβ, prevent its aggregation, or reduce its production. This review examines the clinical efficacy evidence from previous clinical trials with anti-Aβ therapeutics, in particular, the mAbs. Future therapies are expected to involve a combined-targeted approach to the multiple mechanisms of the amyloid cascade in a particular stage or disease phenotype. Additional studies of presymptomatic AD will likely join ongoing prevention trials, in which mAbs will continue to serve as the focal point.

2022 ◽  
pp. 219-229
Joanna Kiliszek

The Neoplastic Room at the Muzeum Sztuki in Łódź was originally designed in 1948 by the avant-garde artist Władysław Strzemiński. Destroyed in 1950 and reconstructed in 1960, it became the focal point of the museum, with the ‘International Collection of Modern Art’ by the a.r. group being exhibited there. At the same time, it became a point of reference for contemporary artists and a strategy for building a permanent collection for the museum, as well as a reflection on how the past can give a vision of the future. This essay focuses on the gesture of ‘re-curating’ the Neoplastic Room in relation to the performative practice of the artists involved (e.g., Daniel Buren, Elżbieta Jabłońska).

Andrea Nichols ◽  
Erin Heil ◽  

The current academic discourse examining human trafficking is lacking in focus on survivors with a disability. The increased likelihood of abuse experienced by people with a disability is well documented in the research literature, and a small body of research indicates heightened sex trafficking victimization of minor girls with a disability. Yet, very little research specifically examines sex and/or labor trafficking of people with a disability, and no systematic research analyzes prosecuted cases of trafficking with disability as the focal point of analysis. Drawing from a content analysis of 18 federal and 17 state cases of human trafficking, the current study specifically aimed to increase our understandings of sex and labor trafficking involving survivors with a disability. The findings revealed the following patterns and themes: 1) the type of trafficking experienced (sex, labor, or both), 2) whether state level or federal cases 3) the types of disabilities identified among trafficking survivors, 4) the nature of the relationship between traffickers and survivors, 5) methods of recruitment, 6) case outcomes; and 7) demographic characteristics of traffickers and survivors (e.g., gender/citizenship). Implications include prevention efforts in the form of developmentally grounded sex education and healthy relationships curriculum for survivors with an intellectual disability, as well as specialized anti-trafficking training for those in legal, healthcare, and social services that is inclusive of people with a disability.

2022 ◽  
pp. 202-224
Robert Costello ◽  
Jodie Donovan

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disability among gamers where individuals belonging to this group of conditions have difficulty understanding non-verbal cues. Though game accessibility is a focal point in the games industry, there has been a keen focus placed on developing accessibility. Consequently, this study examines the perspective of video games from individuals who have autism to gain further insight into the needs of these individuals. The preliminary study is to discover if autistic users' difficulty reading non-verbal cues extends to their perception of a game environment and if these individuals can experience sensory distress while playing video games. A prototype was created to further understand the non-verbal cues to help shape the foundation of accessibility framework. The preliminary results concluded that autistic users frequently misread or fail to pick up on the non-verbal cues used by developers to drive game flow and narrative (e.g., sign-posting), in addition to experiencing sensory distress while playing video games.

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