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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Jevgenija Pantiuchina ◽  
Bin Lin ◽  
Fiorella Zampetti ◽  
Massimiliano Di Penta ◽  
Michele Lanza ◽  
...  

Refactoring operations are behavior-preserving changes aimed at improving source code quality. While refactoring is largely considered a good practice, refactoring proposals in pull requests are often rejected after the code review. Understanding the reasons behind the rejection of refactoring contributions can shed light on how such contributions can be improved, essentially benefiting software quality. This article reports a study in which we manually coded rejection reasons inferred from 330 refactoring-related pull requests from 207 open-source Java projects. We surveyed 267 developers to assess their perceived prevalence of these identified rejection reasons, further complementing the reasons. Our study resulted in a comprehensive taxonomy consisting of 26 refactoring-related rejection reasons and 21 process-related rejection reasons. The taxonomy, accompanied with representative examples and highlighted implications, provides developers with valuable insights on how to ponder and polish their refactoring contributions, and indicates a number of directions researchers can pursue toward better refactoring recommenders.


Author(s):  
Mustafa I. Hameed ◽  
Buthyna Najad Shihab

The goal of this paper is to investigate some of the features of differential subordination of analytic univalent functions in an open unit disc. In addition, it has shed light on geometric features such as coefficient inequality, Hadamard product qualities, and the Komatu integral operator. Some intriguing results for third-order differential subordination and superordination of analytic univalent functions have been installed. Then, using the convolution of two linear operators, certain results of third order differential subordination involving linear operators were reported. As a result, we use features of the Komatu integral operator to analyze and study third-order subordinations and superordinations in relation to the convolution. Finally, several results for third order differential subordination in the open unit disk using generalized hypergeometric function have been addressed using the convolution operator.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qianying Liu ◽  
Xiang Zhang ◽  
Hui Huang ◽  
Yuxin Chen ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
...  

Pendrin SLC26A4 is an anion exchanger expressed in apical membranes of selected epithelia. Pendrin ablation causes Pendred syndrome, a genetic disorder disease associated with sensorineural hearing loss, hypothyroid goiter, and reduced blood pressure. However, its molecular structure has remained unknown limiting our understanding. Here, we determined the structures of mouse pendrin with symmetric and characteristically asymmetric homodimer conformations by cryo-electron microscopy. The asymmetric homodimer consists of an inward-facing protomer and an intermediate-state protomer, representing the coincident uptake and secretion process, and exhibits the unique state of pendrin as an electroneutral exchanger. This previously unrevealed conformation, together with other conformations we captured, provides an inverted alternate-access mechanism for anion exchange. Furthermore, our structural and functional data disclosed the properties of anion exchange cleft and interpreted the important pathogenetic mutations. These investigations shed light on the pendrin exchange mechanism and extend our structure-guided understanding of pathogenetic mutations.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alauna Safarpour ◽  
Alexi Quintana ◽  
David Lazer ◽  
Roy H. Perlis ◽  
Matthew Baum ◽  
...  

Late Friday, the CDC updated its guidance regarding mask types for Americans, saying that people now “can choose” to wear higher quality respirators such as N95 or KN95 masks, if they wish. The updated guidance comes on the heels of President Biden’s announcement on Thursday that the nation has more than tripled its stockpile of N95s to help ensure the masks are available to the general population. In this report, we examine Americans’ current attitudes towards mask use including whether and what type of masks Americans currently use, beliefs regarding CDC mask recommendations (attitudescollected before the CDC’s updated guidance issued January 14, 2022), beliefs about which types of masks offer the greatest protection, and how mask use has changed over thecourse of the pandemic. These data shed light on the current masking behavior of Americans and point to current popular understanding (or misunderstanding) of CDC recommendations.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Muhammad Tufail ◽  
Changxin Wu

IGF-1Rs enact a significant part in cancer growth and its progress. IGF-1R inhibitors were encouraged in the early trials, but the patients did not benefit due to the unavailability of predictive biomarkers and IGF-1R system complexity. However, the linkage between IGF-1R and cancer was reported three decades ago. This review will shed light on the IGF-1R system, targeting IGF-1R through monoclonal antibodies, reasons behind IGF-1R trial failure and future directions. This study presented that targeting IGF-1R through monoclonal antibodies is still effective in cancer treatment, and there is a need to look for future directions. Cancer patients may benefit from using mAbs that target existing and new cancer targets, evidenced by promising results. It is also essential that the academician, trial experts and pharmaceutical companies play their role in finding a treatment for this deadly disease.


Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Author(s):  
Ahmed Abou El Zalaf

Existing scholarship has largely focused on the role of Sayyid Qutb’s ideas when analyzing the Muslim Brotherhood’s violent history. Perceiving Qutb’s ideas as paving the way for radical interpretations of jihad, many studies linked the Brotherhood’s violent history with this key ideologue. Yet, in so doing, many studies overlooked the importance of the Special Apparatus in shaping this violent history of the Brotherhood, long before Qutb joined the organization. Through an in-depth study of memoires and accounts penned by Brotherhood members and leaders, and a systematic study of British and American intelligence sources, I attempt to shed light on this understudied formation of the Brotherhood, the Special Apparatus. This paper looks at the development of anti-colonial militancy in Egypt, particularly the part played by the Brotherhood until 1954. It contends that political violence, in the context of British colonization, antedated the Brotherhood’s foundation, and was in some instances considered as a legitimate and even distinguished duty among anti-colonial factions. The application of violence was on no account a part of the Brotherhood’s core strategy, but the organization, nevertheless, established an armed and secret wing tasked with the fulfillment of what a segment of its members perceived as the duty of anti-colonial jihad.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaohua Li ◽  
Le Wang ◽  
Guangyao Chen ◽  
Muhammad Shafq ◽  
zhaoquan Gu

In order to preserve data privacy while fully utilizing data from different owners, federated learning is believed to be a promising approach in recent years. However, aiming at federated learning in the image domain, gradient inversion techniques can reconstruct the input images on pixel-level only by leaked gradients, without accessing the raw data, which makes federated learning vulnerable to the attacks. In this paper, we review the latest advances of image gradient inversion techniques and evaluate the impact of them to federated learning from the attack perspective. We use eight models and four datasets to evaluate the current gradient inversion techniques, comparing the attack performance as well as the time consumption. Furthermore, we shed light on some important and interesting directions of gradient inversion against federated learning.<br>


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Quan-Hui Liu ◽  
Juanjuan Zhang ◽  
Cheng Peng ◽  
Maria Litvinova ◽  
Shudong Huang ◽  
...  

AbstractThere are contrasting results concerning the effect of reactive school closure on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To shed light on this controversy, we developed a data-driven computational model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We found that by reactively closing classes based on syndromic surveillance, SARS-CoV-2 infections are reduced by no more than 17.3% (95%CI: 8.0–26.8%), due to the low probability of timely identification of infections in the young population. We thus investigated an alternative triggering mechanism based on repeated screening of students using antigen tests. Depending on the contribution of schools to transmission, this strategy can greatly reduce COVID-19 burden even when school contribution to transmission and immunity in the population is low. Moving forward, the adoption of antigen-based screenings in schools could be instrumental to limit COVID-19 burden while vaccines continue to be rolled out.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaohua Li ◽  
Le Wang ◽  
Guangyao Chen ◽  
Muhammad Shafq ◽  
zhaoquan Gu

In order to preserve data privacy while fully utilizing data from different owners, federated learning is believed to be a promising approach in recent years. However, aiming at federated learning in the image domain, gradient inversion techniques can reconstruct the input images on pixel-level only by leaked gradients, without accessing the raw data, which makes federated learning vulnerable to the attacks. In this paper, we review the latest advances of image gradient inversion techniques and evaluate the impact of them to federated learning from the attack perspective. We use eight models and four datasets to evaluate the current gradient inversion techniques, comparing the attack performance as well as the time consumption. Furthermore, we shed light on some important and interesting directions of gradient inversion against federated learning.<br>


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