early 20th century
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Hamugetu’s paper discusses the relationships between tradition and modernity through an examination of the Seventh lCang-skya’s activities in China and Inner Mongolia in the late Qing period. Articulating a modern ideology of the separation of church and state, he sought to protect the interests of Tibetan Buddhist society from both the Chinese government and Inner Mongolian nationalists through accommodating both forces, while simultaneously seeking to reform Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Mongolia along modernist lines. Striving to protect the interests of the Buddhist community, the struggle of the Seventh lCang-skya between the system of jasak lamas and the separation of religion and state is typical of the issues facing the Tibetan Buddhist world in the early 20th century.

Julie Flood ◽  

In the early 20th century, coffee wilt disease (CWD) caused by the vascular wilt pathogen, Fusarium xylarioides, spread across Africa destroying coffee trees, reducing yields and significantly impacting producer livelihoods. Through systematic sanitation and establishment of breeding programmes in affected countries, CWD appeared to decline. However, the disease re-emerged and increased to epidemic proportions in the 1990s affecting robusta coffee in DRC, Uganda and Tanzania and arabica coffee in Ethiopia. In 1999, 14.5 million robusta coffee trees were estimated to have been destroyed in Uganda alone. This chapter discusses the history, impact, symptoms, cause and spread of CWD. A summary of the Regional Coffee Wilt Programme (RCWP) which examined many aspects of the disease and its management is also provided. . Future research trends include host specificity, underlying resistance mechanisms and the role of alternative hosts. Investigation of pathogen ecology is needed to allow greater focus on agroecological management practices.

И. В. Покатилова ◽  
А. Ф. Лукина

Актуальность темы связана с новыми методологическими подходами в исследовании современной культуры Якутии начала 21 века. Авторы попытались применить метод междисциплинарного подхода в исследовании образной географии Якутии начала 21 века на примере проекта «Образная карта - маршрут Таттинского улуса». Город и село в 20 веке являются разными средами обитания современного человека. В первой среде зарождается креативная культура, а во второй - дольше сохраняется традиционная культура. Трансформация традиционной культуры в начале 20 века в городе Якутске привело к зарождению нового креативного типа культуры, а в конце 20 века в постсоветском пространстве формируется образная география конкретного региона или улуса, стянув пространство ландшафта и памятников культурного наследия, что ярко прослеживается на материале Таттинского улуса. The relevance of the topic is related to new methodological approaches in the study of modern culture of Yakutia in the early 21st century. The authors tried to apply the method of an interdisciplinary approach in the study of the figurative geography of Yakutia of the early 20th century by the example of the project "Figurative map - the route of Tatta ulus". City and village in the 20th century are different environments of a modern man. In the first environment, creative culture is born, and in the second, traditional culture is preserved longer. Transformation of traditional culture at the beginning of the 20th century in Yakutsk city led to the birth of a new creative type of culture, and at the end of the 20th century, in the post-Soviet space, a figurative geography of a specific region is formed, pulling together the space of the landscape and cultural heritage monuments, which is clearly seen in the material of Tatta ulus.

Adrián Sánchez Castillo

In the agrarian context of the early 20th century, networks of experts and interest groups were created. These formed institutions across state borders to achieve prestige derived from their supranational character and ostensible technical and scientific capacity. The objective of this article is to analyse the impact in Spain of the International Institute of Agriculture (IIA), from the year of its creation until the advent of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, through the lens of the “social question”: a concept that popularized the proposals and disagreements surrounding labour regulation. The research draws from the latest contributions in transnational history and internationalism, recent secondary sources about the IIA and primary sources that reflect how transnational IIA networks worked in and with Spain to address agricultural labour issues. The article concludes that the intensely transnational connections between agrarian elites, owners and technicians in the early 20th century transformed social relations in agriculture and agrarian public policies in Spain.

Priya DasSarma ◽  
Brian P. Anton ◽  
Jessie M. Griffith ◽  
Karina S. Kunka ◽  
Richard J. Roberts ◽  

Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-34001 is a red, extremely halophilic archaeon isolated in Canada in 1934. Single-molecule real-time sequencing revealed a 2.3-Mbp genome with a 2-Mbp chromosome and two plasmids (235 kb and 43 kb). The genome encodes all conserved core haloarchaeal groups (cHOGs) and a highly acidic proteome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (3) ◽  
Julius M. Gathogo

Njega wa Gioko (1865–1948) was one of the pioneer Chiefs in Kirinyaga county of Kenya. The other pioneer Chief in Kirinyaga county was Gutu wa Kibetu (1860–1927) who reigned in the Eastern part of Kirinyaga county. Gioko reigned in the western part of Kirinyaga county (Ndia) that extended to some geographical parts of the present-day Nyeri county and the present-day Embu county. Njega also became the first paramount Chief of Embu district, which refers to the present-day Embu and Kirinyaga counties. As colonial hegemony and the protestant missionary enterprises, and its resultant evangelical theology, began to shape up in the present-day Kirinyaga county and the surrounding areas between 1904 and 1906, it found Gioko and Kibetu as the Athamaki (the most revered leaders). The evangelical European missionaries (Church Missionary Society [CMS]) who were comfortable with the colonial expansion, as it provided western governance structures that favoured their enterprises, employed Calvinistic theology in their dealings with the colonial government, and they dealt with the local leaders (Athamaki), who were eventually ‘promoted’ to the post of Chiefs in 1908 by the new rulers. Nevertheless, the missionary’s emphasis on unrealised eschatology (future concerns) differed sharply with those of Athamaki who were the custodians of African indigenous religion and its resultant emphasis on realised eschatology (present concerns). As an agent of African religion, how did Gioko relate with the early 20th-century evangelical European missionaries and their Calvinistic tendencies that favoured the Church–State relationship as the way of God? The data for this research article are gathered through oral interviews, archival sources and extensive review of the relevant literature.Contribution: This article contributes to the journal’s vision and scope with its focus on the early protestant theologies of the European Missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries, and their resultant clashes with the theologies of African indigenous religion. As a multidisciplinary article that builds on a theo-historical design, the article contributes to the ongoing discourses on gospel and culture.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 115-130
O. S. Egorova

The article is dedicated to the analysis of fragments from the scientific works of Russian authors in 18th – early 20th century, which contain references to Aristotle’s “De Animalibus” texts. The author makes a conclusion about poor research and superficial reception of these Aristotle’s treatises in this period. “De Animalibus” texts didn’t play a big role in Russian culture, having primarily just a historical value.

2022 ◽  
pp. 155335062110664
Eleftherios Zachariou ◽  
Athanasios Galanis ◽  
Evangelos Mavrommatis

Edward Hickling Bradford (1848-1926) is considered as 1 of the most important figures in American and world orthopedics during 19th and early 20th century. His teaching ability, his gifted surgical skills and his innovations in orthopedics attracted the interest of the world orthopedic’s community and gave him a long lasting reputation. But most of all he is considered as the founder of pediatric orthopedics in America.

2022 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 109-119
S. E. Azhigali ◽  
L. R. Turganbayeva

This is the fi rst description of a key Kazakh recent permanent settlement at Donyztau, in the northern Ustyurt. Such sites, evidencing major historical processes during the transition of nomadic pastoralists to a semi-sedentary lifestyle (mid-19th to early 20th century), are known as “ritual and housing complexes” (RHC). Kainar, a highly representative site, is viewed as a socio-cultural phenomenon and an integral architectural and landscape ensemble. The excavation history of RHCs in the Donyztau area and their evolution are discussed, and the role of ascetics such as Doszhan-Ishan Kashakuly is described. We highlight separate parts of the complex (the settlement and cemetery) and their elements. The architecture of the RHC is reconstructed with regard to structure, function, and continuity with the landscape. The layout of the site as a whole and of the madrasah with its typical elements are compared with those of similar sites in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. A reconstruction of the complex is proposed and the function of public halls is interpreted. The role of the cemetery and of its parts in the structure of the RHC is evaluated; the evolution of its spatial organization is traced. Types of memorial complexes are listed in terms of harmony with the landscape, archaic beliefs, architecture, and style, specifi cally stone carving. The historical and cultural signifi cance of Kainar as a source of knowledge about the transition to a semi-sedentary way of life and the Islamization of the steppe is discussed.

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