Early 20Th Century
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Adrián Sánchez Castillo

In the agrarian context of the early 20th century, networks of experts and interest groups were created. These formed institutions across state borders to achieve prestige derived from their supranational character and ostensible technical and scientific capacity. The objective of this article is to analyse the impact in Spain of the International Institute of Agriculture (IIA), from the year of its creation until the advent of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, through the lens of the “social question”: a concept that popularized the proposals and disagreements surrounding labour regulation. The research draws from the latest contributions in transnational history and internationalism, recent secondary sources about the IIA and primary sources that reflect how transnational IIA networks worked in and with Spain to address agricultural labour issues. The article concludes that the intensely transnational connections between agrarian elites, owners and technicians in the early 20th century transformed social relations in agriculture and agrarian public policies in Spain.

И. В. Покатилова ◽  
А. Ф. Лукина

Актуальность темы связана с новыми методологическими подходами в исследовании современной культуры Якутии начала 21 века. Авторы попытались применить метод междисциплинарного подхода в исследовании образной географии Якутии начала 21 века на примере проекта «Образная карта - маршрут Таттинского улуса». Город и село в 20 веке являются разными средами обитания современного человека. В первой среде зарождается креативная культура, а во второй - дольше сохраняется традиционная культура. Трансформация традиционной культуры в начале 20 века в городе Якутске привело к зарождению нового креативного типа культуры, а в конце 20 века в постсоветском пространстве формируется образная география конкретного региона или улуса, стянув пространство ландшафта и памятников культурного наследия, что ярко прослеживается на материале Таттинского улуса. The relevance of the topic is related to new methodological approaches in the study of modern culture of Yakutia in the early 21st century. The authors tried to apply the method of an interdisciplinary approach in the study of the figurative geography of Yakutia of the early 20th century by the example of the project "Figurative map - the route of Tatta ulus". City and village in the 20th century are different environments of a modern man. In the first environment, creative culture is born, and in the second, traditional culture is preserved longer. Transformation of traditional culture at the beginning of the 20th century in Yakutsk city led to the birth of a new creative type of culture, and at the end of the 20th century, in the post-Soviet space, a figurative geography of a specific region is formed, pulling together the space of the landscape and cultural heritage monuments, which is clearly seen in the material of Tatta ulus.

Priya DasSarma ◽  
Brian P. Anton ◽  
Jessie M. Griffith ◽  
Karina S. Kunka ◽  
Richard J. Roberts ◽  

Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-34001 is a red, extremely halophilic archaeon isolated in Canada in 1934. Single-molecule real-time sequencing revealed a 2.3-Mbp genome with a 2-Mbp chromosome and two plasmids (235 kb and 43 kb). The genome encodes all conserved core haloarchaeal groups (cHOGs) and a highly acidic proteome.

2022 ◽  

Though he has been marginalized in most mainstream accounts of modern architecture, Albert Kahn (b. 1869–d. 1942) is increasingly considered one of the most important and consequential US architects of the 20th century. Kahn is known primarily for the technically innovative and rigorously functional factory buildings that his still-extant firm Albert Kahn Associates, Inc. (founded 1903) designed for automotive manufacturers, including the Ford Motor Company, but his firm was also responsible for hundreds of eclectically styled buildings for other purposes in Detroit, Michigan. Research and writing regarding Albert Kahn often requires considerable effort to disambiguation. Most importantly, Albert Kahn the man is far from a synecdoche for the firm he founded, Albert Kahn Associates, Inc., which employed upward of several hundred people at its height and is still in operation under the simplified Kahn moniker today. Some mid-20th century historians and critics substituted the inaccurate and often derogatory moniker “Albert Kahn Inc.” as name for the firm to suggest its alienated and impersonal nature. Albert Kahn’s siblings are also worthy of attention in their own right. Frequently mentioned in the extant literature are brothers Julius (b. 1874–d. 1942) who was a trained engineer, inventor and co-founder of the highly successful Trussed Concrete Steel Company; Moritz (b. 1880–d. 1939), who was also an executive of the Kahn firm pivotal in its operations in the USSR between 1929 and 1932, and occasionally Louis (b. 1885–d. 1945), who was a manager and executive in the Kahn firm. Views of Albert Kahn have served as a barometer for the intellectual climate in architecture culture since the early 20th century, indexing the relative importance of aesthetics, ethics, and technics. Studies of Kahn and his firm have, until recently, primarily focused on their contributions to industrial architecture and the influence of their early factory buildings on architecture culture at large. These studies often describe the give-and-take between assembly lines and the streamlined, pragmatic design of the buildings that encompassed them. An upsurge of recent attention to Kahn’s work has been oriented away from issues of design toward larger histories. Some scholars have addressed the shift toward large, integrated offices within the profession, for which Albert Kahn Associates was a groundbreaking exemplar. Others have addressed the ways Kahn served the growth of global enterprise, revealing that his marginalization from architectural history has effaced the willful complicity of US architects in compounding capitalist power and solidifying its ideology. These topics remain rich veins for future researchers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (3) ◽  
Julius M. Gathogo

Njega wa Gioko (1865–1948) was one of the pioneer Chiefs in Kirinyaga county of Kenya. The other pioneer Chief in Kirinyaga county was Gutu wa Kibetu (1860–1927) who reigned in the Eastern part of Kirinyaga county. Gioko reigned in the western part of Kirinyaga county (Ndia) that extended to some geographical parts of the present-day Nyeri county and the present-day Embu county. Njega also became the first paramount Chief of Embu district, which refers to the present-day Embu and Kirinyaga counties. As colonial hegemony and the protestant missionary enterprises, and its resultant evangelical theology, began to shape up in the present-day Kirinyaga county and the surrounding areas between 1904 and 1906, it found Gioko and Kibetu as the Athamaki (the most revered leaders). The evangelical European missionaries (Church Missionary Society [CMS]) who were comfortable with the colonial expansion, as it provided western governance structures that favoured their enterprises, employed Calvinistic theology in their dealings with the colonial government, and they dealt with the local leaders (Athamaki), who were eventually ‘promoted’ to the post of Chiefs in 1908 by the new rulers. Nevertheless, the missionary’s emphasis on unrealised eschatology (future concerns) differed sharply with those of Athamaki who were the custodians of African indigenous religion and its resultant emphasis on realised eschatology (present concerns). As an agent of African religion, how did Gioko relate with the early 20th-century evangelical European missionaries and their Calvinistic tendencies that favoured the Church–State relationship as the way of God? The data for this research article are gathered through oral interviews, archival sources and extensive review of the relevant literature.Contribution: This article contributes to the journal’s vision and scope with its focus on the early protestant theologies of the European Missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries, and their resultant clashes with the theologies of African indigenous religion. As a multidisciplinary article that builds on a theo-historical design, the article contributes to the ongoing discourses on gospel and culture.

Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Edgar Zavala-Pelayo ◽  
Hung-Chieh Chang

The Presbyterian missions and medical missions in 19th-century Taiwan were successful enterprises that over time developed into the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, which stands today as the largest Christian minority church in this country. Through a Foucauldian biopolitical perspective, this paper analyzes the roles of female missionaries in the management of bodies and the subjective experiences of both foreign and Native women in the missions. Going beyond descriptive narratives and control-versus-agency reductionist frames, the paper points the polyvalent semantics of such roles and experiences. It also explores the complex relations between the women’s biopolitical functions, the PCT’s industrial type of biopolitical apparatus, and the biopolitical regimes of the late Qing dynasty and the Japanese colonial government in the early 20th century. The conclusions remark on the analytical relevance of biopolitical perspectives in the study of gender and body-related phenomena in Christian missions and Christian religions beyond Western societies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 115-130
O. S. Egorova

The article is dedicated to the analysis of fragments from the scientific works of Russian authors in 18th – early 20th century, which contain references to Aristotle’s “De Animalibus” texts. The author makes a conclusion about poor research and superficial reception of these Aristotle’s treatises in this period. “De Animalibus” texts didn’t play a big role in Russian culture, having primarily just a historical value.

Yi-Jin Park ◽  
Sam-Hun Park

The Motherhood Protection Act (1996), which corresponds to modern family health in Japan, was enacted based on the Eugenics Protection Law (1948) for the protection of national eugenics. This leads us to the question of how maternal health and eugenics began to merge in Japan. Answer of this will elucidate the characteristics of family health in Japan and historical background. Maternal health and eugenics began to be fused in Japan in the early 20th century. In this paper, we examined Taikyō, which is the source of this fusion. This book was widely disseminated to the public. An educational book influenced the Japanese women’s movement. Taikyō argued that from the standpoint of public health, responsibility for prenatal care should be extended to the husband, family, society and the nation. It emphasized that “mental hygiene” is necessary to produce a genetically good child, and that spouse selection is important. Books on prenatal care published in the first half of the 20th century, following Taikyō’s description of prenatal care as a form of eugenics. The National Eugenic Act enacted to protect national hygiene inspired the classification of the Japanese as ​​a chosen nation. The theory of prenatal care, which was created from the combination of public hygiene and eugenics, provided a justification for the National Eugenic Act, and this still serves as the basis for the Eugenics Protection Law and Motherhood Protection Act. It provides the “scientific basis” for recognizing that “unsanitary” and “disability” are bad.

2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
Melonie B. Murray ◽  
Steven Ross Murray

This article traces the development of dance as an academic discipline from its infancy in physical education programs to its present state, noting the significance of the burgeoning field of dance science and how it is a catalyst for the reconnecting of dance to physical education. The academic discipline of dance originated in the early 20th century in American academe, particularly in women’s physical education programs. By the 1920s, dance emerged as a discrete discipline with Margaret H’Doubler’s founding of the first baccalaureate degree in dance at the University of Wisconsin. By the 1960s, the academic discipline of dance had shifted from its original mission of movement education for everyone to focus more on professional dance training for highly skilled performers. This philosophical shift saw many dance programs move from homes in physical education to the fine arts. During this time, dance also saw an increasing disciplinary emphasis on choreographic and performance projects, a trend still evident today. Dance science began to develop as an academic field in the early 1980s, and shortly after publications and conferences in the area were born. The professional association the International Association for Dance Medicine and Science was founded in 1990. With dance science’s emergence, dance and physical education began to realign, albeit often in departments of kinesiology. Today, with the development of dance science as a burgeoning field, dance and kinesiology are coming full circle, rejoining through their historical roots.

2022 ◽  
pp. 155335062110664
Eleftherios Zachariou ◽  
Athanasios Galanis ◽  
Evangelos Mavrommatis

Edward Hickling Bradford (1848-1926) is considered as 1 of the most important figures in American and world orthopedics during 19th and early 20th century. His teaching ability, his gifted surgical skills and his innovations in orthopedics attracted the interest of the world orthopedic’s community and gave him a long lasting reputation. But most of all he is considered as the founder of pediatric orthopedics in America.

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