Domestic and industrial wastewater discharges harbor rich bacterial communities, including both pathogenic and commensal organisms that are antibiotic-resistant (AR). AR pathogens pose a potential threat to human and animal health. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), bacteria encounter environments suitable for horizontal gene transfer, providing an opportunity for bacterial cells to acquire new antibiotic-resistant genes. With many entry points to environmental components, especially water and soil, WWTPs are considered a critical control point for antibiotic resistance. The primary and secondary units of conventional WWTPs are not designed for the reduction of resistant microbes. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are viable wastewater treatment options with the potential for mitigating AR bacteria, their genes, pathogens, and general pollutants. Encouraging performance for the removal of AR (2–4 logs) has highlighted the applicability of CW on fields. Their low cost of construction, operation and maintenance makes them well suited for applications across the globe, especially in developing and low-income countries. The present review highlights a better understanding of the performance efficiency of conventional treatment plants and CWs for the elimination/reduction of AR from wastewater. They are viable alternatives that can be used for secondary/tertiary treatment or effluent polishing in combination with WWTP or in a decentralized manner.
Denture stomatitis (DS) is an inflammatory disease resulting from a polymicrobial biofilm perturbation at the denture surface–palatal mucosa interface. Recommendations made by dental health care professionals often lack clarity for appropriate denture cleaning. This study investigated the efficacy of brushing with off-the-shelf denture cleanser (DC) tablets (Poligrip®) vs. two toothpastes (Colgate® and Crest®) in alleviating the viable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in an in vitro denture biofilm model. Biofilms were grown on poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) discs, then treated daily for 7 days with mechanical disruption (brushing), plus Poligrip® DC, Colgate® or Crest® toothpastes. Weekly treatment with Poligrip® DC on day 7 only was compared to daily modalities. All treatment parameters were processed to determine viable colony forming units for bacteria and fungi using the Miles and Misra technique, and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Brushing with daily DC therapy was the most effective treatment in reducing the viable biofilm over 7 days of treatment. Brushing only was ineffective in controlling the viable bioburden, which was confirmed by CLSM imaging. This data indicates that regular cleansing of PMMA with DC was best for polymicrobial biofilms.
The impact of serum concentrations of vancomycin is a controversial topic. Results: 182 critically ill patients were evaluated using vancomycin and 63 patients were included in the study. AKI occurred in 44.4% of patients on the sixth day of vancomycin use. Vancomycin higher than 17.53 mg/L between the second and the fourth days of use was a predictor of AKI, preceding AKI diagnosis for at least two days, with an area under the curve of 0.806 (IC 95% 0.624–0.987, p = 0.011). Altogether, 46.03% of patients died, and in the Cox analysis, the associated factors were age, estimated GFR, CPR, and vancomycin between the second and the fourth days. Discussion: The current 2020 guidelines recommend using Bayesian-derived AUC monitoring rather than trough concentrations. However, due to the higher number of laboratory analyses and the need for an application to calculate the AUC, many centers still use therapeutic trough levels between 15 and 20 mg/L. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a narrower range of serum concentration of vancomycin was a predictor of AKI in critically ill septic patients, preceding the diagnosis of AKI by at least 48 h, and it can be a useful monitoring tool when AUC cannot be used.
Intestinal epithelium provides the largest barrier protecting mammalian species from harmful external factors; however, it can be severely compromised by the presence of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antibiotics have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of GI bacterial infections, leading to antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine alike. In order to decrease antibiotic usage, natural substances, such as flavonoids, are investigated to be used as antibiotic alternatives. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are potential candidates for this purpose owing to their various beneficial effects in humans and animals. In this study, protective effects of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (GSOPs) were tested in IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium of swine origin. GSOPs were able to alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation and barrier integrity disruption inflicted by bacteria in the co-culture. Furthermore, GSOPs could decrease the adhesion of both bacteria to IPEC-J2 cells. Based on these observations, GSOPs seem to be promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal bacterial infections.
Quantification of the number of living cells in biofilm or after eradication treatments of biofilm, is problematic for different reasons. We assessed the performance of pre-treatment of DNA, planktonic cells and ex vivo vaginal biofilms of Gardnerella with propidium monoazide (PMAxx) to prevent qPCR-based amplification of DNA from killed cells (viability-qPCR). Standard PMAxx treatment did not completely inactivate free DNA and did not affect living cells. While culture indicated that killing of planktonic cells by heat or by endolysin was complete, viability-qPCR assessed only log reductions of 1.73 and 0.32, respectively. Therefore, we improved the standard protocol by comparing different (combinations of) parameters, such as concentration of PMAxx, and repetition, duration and incubation conditions of treatment. The optimized PMAxx treatment condition for further experiments consisted of three cycles, each of: 15 min incubation on ice with 50 µM PMAxx, followed by 15 min-long light exposure. This protocol was validated for use in vaginal samples from women with bacterial vaginosis. Up to log2.2 reduction of Gardnerella cells after treatment with PM-477 was documented, despite the complex composition of the samples, which might have hampered the activity of PM-477 as well as the quantification of low loads by viability-qPCR.
Technological innovations and quality control processes within blood supply organizations have significantly improved blood safety for both donors and recipients. Nevertheless, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains non-negligible. Applying a nanoparticular, antibacterial coating at the surface of medical devices is a promising strategy to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we characterized the antibacterial activity of an SiO2 nanoparticular coating (i.e., the “Medical Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Coating” [MAAC]) applied on relevant polymeric materials (PM) used in the biomedical field. Electron microscopy revealed a smoother surface for the MAAC-treated PM compared to the reference, suggesting antiadhesive properties. The antibacterial activity was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in accordance with ISO 22196. Bacterial growth was significantly reduced for the MAAC-treated PVC, plasticized PVC, polyurethane and silicone (90–99.999%) in which antibacterial activity of ≥1 log reduction was reached for all bacterial strains tested. Cytotoxicity was evaluated following ISO 10993-5 guidelines and L929 cell viability was calculated at ≥90% in the presence of MAAC. This study demonstrates that the MAAC could prevent bacterial contamination as demonstrated by the ISO 22196 tests, while further work needs to be done to improve the coating processability and effectiveness of more complex matrices.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a concerning global threat that, if not addressed, could lead to increases in morbidity and mortality, coupled with societal and financial burdens. The emergence of AMR bacteria can be attributed, in part, to the decreased development of new antibiotics, increased misuse and overuse of existing antibiotics, and inadequate treatment options for biofilms formed during bacterial infections. Biofilms are complex microbiomes enshrouded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that is a primary defense mechanism of the resident microorganisms against antimicrobial agents and the host immune system. In addition to the physical protective EPS barrier, biofilm-resident bacteria exhibit tolerance mechanisms enabling persistence and the establishment of recurrent infections. As current antibiotics and therapeutics are becoming less effective in combating AMR, new innovative technologies are needed to address the growing AMR threat. This perspective article highlights such a product, CMTX-101, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets a universal component of bacterial biofilms, leading to pathogen-agnostic rapid biofilm collapse and engaging three modes of action—the sensitization of bacteria to antibiotics, host immune enablement, and the suppression of site-specific tissue inflammation. CMTX-101 is a new tool used to enhance the effectiveness of existing, relatively inexpensive first-line antibiotics to fight infections while promoting antimicrobial stewardship.
We are currently facing an antimicrobial resistance crisis, which means that a lot of bacterial pathogens have developed resistance to common antibiotics. Hence, novel and innovative solutions are urgently needed to combat resistant human pathogens. A new source of antimicrobial compounds could be bacterial volatiles. Volatiles are ubiquitous produced, chemically divers and playing essential roles in intra- and interspecies interactions like communication and antimicrobial defense. In the last years, an increasing number of studies showed bioactivities of bacterial volatiles, including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oomycete activities, indicating bacterial volatiles as an exciting source for novel antimicrobial compounds. In this review we introduce the chemical diversity of bacterial volatiles, their antimicrobial activities and methods for testing this activity. Concluding, we discuss the possibility of using antimicrobial volatiles to antagonize the antimicrobial resistance crisis.
This study aimed to evaluate health professionals’ perceptions regarding the level of implementation of the Antimicrobials Stewardship (AMS) programs in Jordanian tertiary hospitals and to assess the perceived barriers to its implementation. During this cross-sectional study, a total of 157 healthcare providers agreed to participate (response rate 96.3%). Participants were asked to complete an electronic survey after meeting them at their working sites. Only 43.9% of the healthcare providers (n = 69) reported having an AMS committee in their hospital settings. The results suggested that private hospitals have significantly better AMS implementation compared to public hospitals among four areas (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the results showed that the most widely available strategies to implement AMS were infectious disease/microbiology advice (n = 112, 71.3%), and treatment guidelines (n = 111, 70.7%). Additionally, the study revealed that the main barrier to AMS implementation was the lack of information technology support (n = 125, 79.6%). These findings could draw managers’ attention to the importance of AMS and support the health care provider’s practice of AMS in Jordanian tertiary hospitals by making the right decisions and the required modifications regarding the strategies needed for the implementation of AMS programs.
In two sequential replicates (n = 90 and n = 96 feedlot finisher cattle, respectively) we measured the impact of an Enterococcus faecium-based probiotic (DFM) and an altered feedlot pen environment on antimicrobial resistance among fecal enterococci in cattle fed (or, not fed) the macrolide tylosin. Diluted fecal samples were spiral-plated on plain and antibiotic-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. In the first replicate, tylosin significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative quantity of erythromycin-resistant enterococci. This effect was diminished in cattle fed the DFM in conjunction with tylosin, indicating a macrolide susceptible probiotic may help mitigate resistance. A similar observed effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in the second replicate. Isolates were speciated and resistance phenotypes were obtained for E. faecium and E. hirae. Susceptible strains of bacteria fed as DFM may prove useful for mitigating the selective effects of antibiotic use; however, the longer-term sustainability of such an approach remains unclear.