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Published By Mdpi Ag

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Updated Wednesday, 22 September 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 782
Author(s):  
Atsushi Kurahashi ◽  
Toshihiko Enomoto ◽  
Yoshifumi Oguro ◽  
Ayana Kojima-Nakamura ◽  
Kazuya Kodaira ◽  
...  

Reportedly, the intake of koji amazake, a beverage made from steamed rice fermented by Aspergillus oryzae, improves defecation frequency. However, its functional ingredients and mechanism of action remain unclear. To compare the effects of koji amazake and a placebo beverage on defecation frequency and to identify the functional ingredients and mechanism of action, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group comparative trial was performed on two groups. The Koji amazake had 302 ± 15.5 mg/118 g of A. oryzae cells, which was not in the placebo. Compared with the placebo group, the koji amazake group showed a significant increase in weekly defecation frequency at 2 weeks (5.09 days vs. 4.14 days), 3 weeks (5.41 days vs. 4.18 days), and 4 weeks (5.09 days vs. 3.95 days), along with an increase in the weekly fecal weight at 4 weeks (724 g vs. 501 g). The intake of koji amazake did not induce significant intergroup differences in the fecal SCFA concentration, whereas it significantly decreased the relative abundance of Blautia and significantly increased that of Bacteroides at 3 weeks. Therefore, koji amazake intake improved defecation frequency, and A. oryzae cells played potentially important roles as functional ingredients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 780
Author(s):  
Cláudia S. L. Vicente ◽  
Miguel Soares ◽  
Jorge M. S. Faria ◽  
Ana P. Ramos ◽  
Maria L. Inácio

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a complex disease that severely affects the biodiversity and economy of Eurasian coniferous forests. Three factors are described as the main elements of the disease: the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the insect-vector Monochamus spp., and the host tree, mainly Pinus spp. Nonetheless, other microbial interactors have also been considered. The study of mycoflora in PWD dates back the late seventies. Culturomic studies have revealed diverse fungal communities associated with all PWD key players, composed frequently of saprophytic fungi (i.e., Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma) but also of necrotrophic pathogens associated with bark beetles, such as ophiostomatoid or blue-stain fungi. In particular, the ophiostomatoid fungi often recovered from wilted pine trees or insect pupal chambers/tunnels, are considered crucial for nematode multiplication and distribution in the host tree. Naturally occurring mycoflora, reported as possible biocontrol agents of the nematode, are also discussed in this review. This review discloses the contrasting effects of fungal communities in PWD and highlights promising fungal species as sources of PWD biocontrol in the framework of sustainable pest management actions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 781
Author(s):  
Manoj Kumar Solanki ◽  
Ahmed Abdelfattah ◽  
Sudharsan Sadhasivam ◽  
Varda Zakin ◽  
Michael Wisniewski ◽  
...  

Wheat grains are colonized by complex microbial communities that have the potential to affect seed quality and susceptibility to disease. Some of the beneficial microbes in these communities have been shown to protect plants against pathogens through antagonism. We evaluated the role of the microbiome in seed health: in particular, against mycotoxin-producing fungi. Amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the seed microbiome and determine if epiphytes and endophytes differ in their fungal and bacterial diversity and community composition. We then isolated culturable fungal and bacterial species and evaluated their antagonistic activity against mycotoxigenic fungi. The most prevalent taxa were found to be shared between the epiphytic and endophytic microbiota of stored wheat seeds. Among the isolated bacteria, Bacillus strains exhibited strong antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens with noteworthy fungal load reduction in wheat grain samples of up to a 3.59 log10 CFU/g compared to untreated controls. We also found that a strain of the yeast, Rhodotorula glutinis, isolated from wheat grains, degrades and/or metabolizes aflatoxin B1, one of the most dangerous mycotoxins that negatively affects physiological processes in animals and humans. The mycotoxin level in grain samples was significantly reduced up to 65% in the presence of the yeast strain, compared to the untreated control. Our study demonstrates that stored wheat grains are a rich source of bacterial and yeast antagonists with strong inhibitory and biodegradation potential against mycotoxigenic fungi and the mycotoxins they produce, respectively. Utilization of these antagonistic microorganisms may help reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination, and potentially replace traditionally used synthetic chemicals.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 778
Author(s):  
Antonio Giordano ◽  
Francesca Di Landro ◽  
Elena De Carolis ◽  
Marianna Criscuolo ◽  
Giulia Dragonetti ◽  
...  

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) remains the major complication in patients with either acute leukemia, allogeneic stem cell transplantation setting, or both, especially regarding pulmonary localization. We report an experience of a 74-year-old Caucasian male with a Philadelphia-positive (BCR-ABL p190) Common B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who developed a pulmonary infection due to Geosmithia argillacea. Furthermore, we describe the management of this complication and the results of microbiological tests useful to guide the treatment. All cases reported show failure of voriconazole treatment. In the majority of cases a good susceptibility to posaconazole has been reported, which seems to have a good clinical impact; however, only L-AmB shows a clinical effect to produce quick clinical improvement and so it should be a drug of choice. A literature revision shows that only a few papers have thus far described this infection, at present only one case was reported in a hematological setting like a gastrointestinal graft versus host disease in an allogeneic HSCT recipient. The severity of clinical conditions in hematological malignancy settings requires improving the management of this emerging invasive fungal infection. Indeed, a molecular diagnostic approach with a tight laboratory collaboration and targeted therapy should become the gold standard.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 779
Author(s):  
Daniel G. Cerritos-Garcia ◽  
Pasco B. Avery ◽  
Xavier Martini ◽  
Valentina Candian ◽  
Liliana M. Cano ◽  
...  

This study aimed to determine the inhibitive or stimulatory effects of leaf extracts from two Brassica rapa subspecies on the hyphal growth of two well-known entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps fumosorosea and Beauveria bassiana. Extract concentrations of 50, 25, and 10% w/v based on leaf fresh weight were prepared from turnip (B. rapa subspecies rapa) and bok choy (B. rapa subspecies chinensis) leaves. Each concentration was individually incorporated into potato dextrose agar plates for in vitro bioassays. The center of each plate was inoculated with 20 µL of a fungal suspension that was allowed 24 h to soak into the agar before sealing the plates and incubating them at 25 °C under a 14-h photophase. The fungal colony perimeter was marked 5 days after inoculation on two perpendicular lines drawn on the bottom of each plate. Radial colony growth was measured from 4 marks per plate 5, 10, and 15 days later. Radial growth rates for both fungi were 1.3–2.0 and 0.9–1.4 times faster with bok choy and turnip extracts, respectively, at the 25% and 50% concentrations compared to the no-extract control treatment. Therefore, bok choy and turnip leaf extracts can stimulate entomopathogenic fungus growth within 15 days. Biochemical compounds in the extracts include sesquiterpenes, α-copaene, β-selinene, γ-gurjunene, calamenene, cubenene, and α-calacorene.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 773
Author(s):  
Jia Xu ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Zehua Zhou ◽  
Peter John Cotty ◽  
Qing Kong

Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus widely present in the soil, air, and in crops. This facultative pathogen of both animals and plants produces aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins with strong teratogenic and carcinogenic properties. Peanuts are highly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination and consumption of contaminated peanuts poses serious threats to the health of humans and domestic animals. Currently, the competitive displacement of aflatoxin-producers from agricultural environments by atoxigenic A. flavus is the most effective method of preventing crop aflatoxin contamination. In the current study, 47 isolates of A. flavus collected from peanut samples originating in Shandong Province were characterized with molecular methods and for aflatoxin-producing ability in laboratory studies. Isolates PA04 and PA10 were found to be atoxigenic members of the L strains morphotype. When co-inoculated with A. flavus NRRL3357 at ratios of 1:10, 1:1, and 10:1 (PA04/PA10: NRRL3357), both atoxigenic strains were able to reduce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) levels, on both culture media and peanut kernels, by up to 90%. The extent to which atoxigenic strains reduced contamination was correlated with the inoculation ratio. Abilities to compete of PA04 and PA10 were also independently verified against local aflatoxin-producer PA37. The results suggest that the two identified atoxigenic strains are good candidates for active ingredients of biocontrol products for the prevention of aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in Shandong Province.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 772
Author(s):  
Ivona Jančo ◽  
Marek Šnirc ◽  
Martin Hauptvogl ◽  
Lenka Demková ◽  
Hana Franková ◽  
...  

Wild-growing edible mushrooms are valuable food with a high content of proteins, fibers, antioxidants, and they are characterized by their specific taste and flavor. However, from an ecotoxicological point of view, they are a risk commodity because of their extremely high bioaccumulative capacity to accumulate the risk elements and contaminants from the environment. In the present study, we examined mercury (Hg) contamination in 230 fruiting bodies of Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer and 230 soil/substrate samples, which were collected in foraging seasons 2015–2019 from 22 different locations in Slovakia. Total mercury content was determined by cold-vapor AAS analyzer AMA 254. The level of contamination and environmental risks were assessed by contamination factor (Cf), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), and potential environmental risk index (PER). Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for individual anatomical parts of M. procera. Mercury content in the soil/substrate samples varied between 0.02 and 0.89 mg kg−1 DW, and in mushroom samples between 0.03 and 2.83 mg kg−1 DW (stems), and between 0.04 and 6.29 mg kg−1 DW (caps). The obtained results were compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake for Hg defined by WHO to determine a health risk resulting from regular and long-term consumption of M. procera.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 777
Author(s):  
Moussa El El Jarroudi ◽  
Fadia Chairi ◽  
Louis Kouadio ◽  
Kathleen Antoons ◽  
Abdoul-Hamid Mohamed Sallah ◽  
...  

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS; caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc.) is the most widespread and damaging foliar disease of sugar beet. Early assessments of CLS risk are thus pivotal to the success of disease management and farm profitability. In this study, we propose a weather-based modelling approach for predicting infection by C. beticola in sugar beet fields in Belgium. Based on reported weather conditions favoring CLS epidemics and the climate patterns across Belgian sugar beet-growing regions during the critical infection period (June to August), optimum weather conditions conducive to CLS were first identified. Subsequently, 14 models differing according to the combined thresholds of air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and rainfall (R) being met simultaneously over uninterrupted hours were evaluated using data collected during the 2018 to 2020 cropping seasons at 13 different sites. Individual model performance was based on the probability of detection (POD), the critical success index (CSI), and the false alarm ratio (FAR). Three models (i.e., M1, M2 and M3) were outstanding in the testing phase of all models. They exhibited similar performance in predicting CLS infection events at the study sites in the independent validation phase; in most cases, the POD, CSI, and FAR values were ≥84%, ≥78%, and ≤15%, respectively. Thus, a combination of uninterrupted rainy conditions during the four hours preceding a likely start of an infection event, RH > 90% during the first four hours and RH > 60% during the following 9 h, daytime T > 16 °C and nighttime T > 10 °C, were the most conducive to CLS development. Integrating such weather-based models within a decision support tool determining fungicide spray application can be a sound basis to protect sugar beet plants against C. beticola, while ensuring fungicides are applied only when needed throughout the season.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 775
Author(s):  
Dong Liu ◽  
Yanliang Wang ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Fuqiang Yu ◽  
Jesús Perez-Moreno

Cultivating macrofungi is an important management measure to develop economy in shady forest areas; however, its effect on soil ecology, especially microbial abundance and structure, remains insufficiently studied. Herein, in a subtropical forestland, soil chemical and enzyme analyses, metagenomic sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the impact of Stropharia rugosoannulata cultivation on soil microbiomes in three niches: soil below fungal beds, soil from furrows, and control forest soil with no influence from mushroom cultivation. Nutrients were accumulated in the soil below fungal beds with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in SOC, total C, total N, available P, and the activities of glucosidase and cellobiosidase. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and PERMANOVA results indicated that the structure of the microbiomes had been significantly (p < 0.05) shaped among the different niches. Soil furrows were microbial hotspots characterized by the higher microbial diversity and richness. Moreover, the increased microbiome abundance (assessed through qPCR) and the high number of significant stimulated functional types (based on MetaCyc genome database) indicated an enhanced functional capacity in furrows. Together, these results provide a comprehensive understanding of the microbial assemblies and the differently influenced soil properties in mushroom cultivation areas.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 774
Author(s):  
Dilara Salimova ◽  
Anna Dalinova ◽  
Vsevolod Dubovik ◽  
Igor Senderskiy ◽  
Elena Stepanycheva ◽  
...  

The study of fungal antibiotics in their competitive interactions with arthropods may lead to the development of novel biorational insecticides. Extracts of Alternaria tenuissima MFP253011 obtained using various methods showed a wide range of biological activities, including entomotoxic properties. Analysis of their composition and bioactivity allowed us to reveal several known mycotoxins and unidentified compounds that may be involved in the entomotoxic activity of the extracts. Among them, tenuazonic acid (TeA), which was the major component of the A. tenuissima extracts, was found the most likely to have larvicidal activity against Galleria mellonella. In the intrahaemocoel injection bioassay, TeA was toxic to G. mellonella and of Zophobas morio with an LT50 of 6 and 2 days, respectively, at the level of 50 µg/larva. Administered orally, TeA inhibited the growth of G. mellonella larvae and caused mortality of Acheta domesticus adults (LT50 7 days) at a concentration of 250 µg/g of feed. TeA showed weak contact intestinal activity against the two phytophages, Tetranychus urticae and Schizaphis graminum, causing 15% and 27% mortality at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, respectively. TeA was cytotoxic to the Sf9 cell line (IC50 25 µg/mL). Thus, model insects such as G. mellonella could be used for further toxicological characterization of TeA.


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