nitrogen and phosphorus
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. U. Khan ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
S. H. Shah ◽  
M. A. Zia ◽  
S. Shoukat ◽  
...  

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 111940
Author(s):  
Hao Lu ◽  
Liuyan Yang ◽  
Yifan Fan ◽  
Xin Qian ◽  
Tong Liu

CATENA ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 211 ◽  
pp. 105982
Author(s):  
Benshuai Yan ◽  
Mengcheng Duan ◽  
Runchao Wang ◽  
Jingjing Li ◽  
Furong Wei ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 102608
Author(s):  
Keying Song ◽  
Yun Lu ◽  
Guohua Dao ◽  
Zhuo Chen ◽  
Yinhu Wu ◽  
...  

CATENA ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 209 ◽  
pp. 105810
Author(s):  
Qiang Jin ◽  
Chun Wang ◽  
Jordi Sardans ◽  
Tony Vancov ◽  
Yunying Fang ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Edina Klein ◽  
Janek Weiler ◽  
Michael Wagner ◽  
Minja Čelikić ◽  
Christof M. Niemeyer ◽  
...  

Abstract Wastewater treatment using aerobic granular sludge has gained increasing interest due to its advantages compared to conventional activated sludge. The technology allows simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a single reactor system and is independent of space-intensive settling tanks. However, due to the microscale, an analysis of processes and microbial population along the radius of granules is challenging. Here, we introduce a model system for aerobic granular sludge on a small scale by using a machine-assisted microfluidic cultivation platform. With an implemented logic module that controls solenoid valves, we realized alternating oxic hunger and anoxic feeding phases for the biofilms growing within. Sampling during ongoing anoxic cultivation directly from the cultivation channel was achieved with a robotic sampling device. Analysis of the biofilms was conducted using optical coherence tomography, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and amplicon sequencing. Using this setup, it was possible to significantly enrich the percentage of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) belonging to the family Rhodocyclaceae in the community compared to the starting inoculum. With the aid of this miniature model system, it is now possible to investigate the influence of a multitude of process parameters in a highly parallel way to understand and efficiently optimize aerobic granular sludge-based wastewater treatment systems.Key points• Development of a microfluidic model to study EBPR.• Feast-famine regime enriches polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs).• Microfluidics replace sequencing batch reactors for aerobic granular sludge research.


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