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2022 ◽  
Vol 48 ◽  
pp. 104022
Author(s):  
Jingguo Xue ◽  
Xueliang Hou ◽  
Jianli Zhou ◽  
Xiaobing Liu ◽  
Yu Guo

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xue Yin ◽  
Jaeil Ahn ◽  
Simina M. Boca

Abstract Objective Life expectancy can be estimated accurately from a cohort of individuals born in the same year and followed from birth to death. However, due to the resource-consuming nature of following a cohort prospectively, life expectancy is often assessed based upon retrospective death record reviews. This conventional approach may lead to potentially biased estimates, in particular when estimating life expectancy of rare diseases such as Morquio syndrome A. We investigated the accuracy of life expectancy estimation using death records by simulating the survival of individuals with Morquio syndrome A under four different scenarios. Results When life expectancy was constant during the entire period, using death data did not result in a biased estimate. However, when life expectancy increased over time, as is often expected to be the case in rare diseases, using only death data led to a substantial underestimation of life expectancy. We emphasize that it is therefore crucial to understand how estimates of life expectancy are obtained, to interpret them in an appropriate context, and to assess estimation methods within a sensitivity analysis framework, similar to the simulations performed herein.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi Wang ◽  
Zhuanying Miao

Abstract The increasing drift of urbanization and its impact on urban human settlements are of major concern for China cities. Therefore, demystifying the spatial-temporal patterns, regional types and affecting factors of urban livability in China are beneficial to urban planning and policy making regarding the construction of livable cities. In accordance with its connotation and denotation, this study develops a systematic evaluation and analysis framework for urban livability. Drawing on the panel data of 40 major cities in China from 2005 to 2019, an empirical research was further conducted. The results show that urban livability in China has exhibited a rising trend during the period, but this differs across dimensions. The levels of urban security and environmental health are lower than those of the three other dimensions. Spatially, cities with higher livability are mainly distributed in the first quadrant divided by the Hu Line and Bole-Taipei Line. Cities in the third quadrant are equipped with the lowest livability. In addition, the 40 major cities can be divided into five categories, and obvious differences exist in terms of the geographical distribution, overall livability level and sub-dimensional characteristics of the different types. Furthermore, the results of the System GMM estimator indicate that the overall economic development exerts an inhibiting effect on the improvement of urban livability in present-day China, but this logical effect exhibits obvious heterogeneity in different time periods and diverse city scales. Finally, there are also differences in the influencing direction and degree of specific economic determinants.


Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 239 ◽  
pp. 122077
Author(s):  
Yunna Wu ◽  
Fangtong Liu ◽  
Junhao Wu ◽  
Jiaming He ◽  
Minjia Xu ◽  
...  

SoftwareX ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
pp. 100921
Author(s):  
Oscar Araque ◽  
J. Fernando Sánchez-Rada ◽  
Carlos A. Iglesias

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 2435-2444
Author(s):  
Fakhrurrazi Fakhrurrazi ◽  
Hasan Asari ◽  
Erawadi Erawadi

Dayah sustainably transmits religious, intellectual, and spiritual traditions (Islamic Boarding Schools). Several Dayah Salafiyah in Langsa City, for example, are also involved in implementing and developing strategies for the cultivation of such religious cultures. To conduct a deeper examination, this phenomenological study examined the involvement, implementation, and strategies used in those Dayahs. Observations were used to collect data. Meanwhile, the data were organized using Miles and Huberman's qualitative data analysis framework. The findings indicated that religious activities based on religious culture at the Dayah Salafiyah in Langsa City were always developed in collaboration with the dayah's leaders, teungku dayah, santri, and community. To begin, the dayah's leader serves as a facilitator, motivator, and mediator in the students' and community's religious activities and a controller of the dayah's activities. Additionally, it is critical to remember that the most fundamental form of salafiyah dayah implementation promotes good behaviour. To ensure that the religious culture development program is carried out as planned, salafiyah education incorporates religious culture into all aspects of its operations. This strategy for religious culture development is carried out by establishing policies, habituation, and student awareness, exemplary behaviour, discipline, and civilization. The dayah's leaders have absolute authority to monitor and evaluate all efforts made by teachers and students to foster a strong religious culture in the school.


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