decision analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Phillip P. Salvatore ◽  
Melisa M. Shah ◽  
Laura Ford ◽  
Augustina Delaney ◽  
Christopher H. Hsu ◽  

Abstract Background Antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 offer advantages over nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs, such as RT-PCR), including lower cost and rapid return of results, but show reduced sensitivity. Public health organizations recommend different strategies for utilizing NAATs and antigen tests. We sought to create a framework for the quantitative comparison of these recommended strategies based on their expected performance. Methods We utilized a decision analysis approach to simulate the expected outcomes of six testing algorithms analogous to strategies recommended by public health organizations. Each algorithm was simulated 50,000 times in a population of 100,000 persons seeking testing. Primary outcomes were number of missed cases, number of false-positive diagnoses, and total test volumes. Outcome medians and 95% uncertainty ranges (URs) were reported. Results Algorithms that use NAATs to confirm all negative antigen results minimized missed cases but required high NAAT capacity: 92,200 (95% UR: 91,200-93,200) tests (in addition to 100,000 antigen tests) at 10% prevalence. Selective use of NAATs to confirm antigen results when discordant with symptom status (e.g., symptomatic persons with negative antigen results) resulted in the most efficient use of NAATs, with 25 NAATs (95% UR: 13-57) needed to detect one additional case compared to exclusive use of antigen tests. Conclusions No single SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm is likely to be optimal across settings with different levels of prevalence and for all programmatic priorities. This analysis provides a framework for selecting setting-specific strategies to achieve acceptable balances and trade-offs between programmatic priorities and resource constraints.

Albert R Vasso ◽  
Richard G Cobb ◽  
John M Colombi ◽  
Bryan D Little ◽  
David W Meyer

The US Government is the world’s de facto provider of space object cataloging data, but it is challenged to maintain pace in an increasingly complex space environment. This work advances a multi-disciplinary approach to better understand and evaluate an underexplored solution recommended by national policy in which current collection capabilities are augmented with non-traditional sensors. System architecting techniques and extant literature identified likely needs, performance measures, and potential contributors to a conceptualized Augmented Network (AN). Multiple hypothetical architectures of ground- and space-based telescopes with representative capabilities were modeled and simulated on four separate days throughout the year, then evaluated against performance measures and constraints using Multi-Objective Optimization. Decision analysis and Pareto optimality identified a small, diverse set of high-performing architectures while preserving design flexibility. Should decision-makers adopt the AN approach, this research effort indicates (1) a threefold increase in average capacity, (2) a 55% improvement in coverage, and (3) a 2.5-h decrease in the average maximum time a space object goes unobserved.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Murilo R. Santos ◽  
Luis C. Dias ◽  
Maria C. Cunha ◽  
João R. Marques

This paper is a systematic review of studies that used multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to address plastic waste management. A literature search for scientific articles in online databases (Web of Science and Scopus) enabled us to identify 20 relevant papers from 2008 to 2021, spanning case studies in three continents. These studies focus on: plastics as a resource (material), plastics as a product (reverse logistics), and plastics as a problem (pollution). Content analysis methodology was used, with the focus being on how the authors used MCDA for managing plastic waste, which has relevance for researchers and practitioners. Alternative solutions were found for the selection of disposal methods for almost all types of plastic categorized in this review. The most popular method was AHP, followed by TOPSIS, outranking methods, MAUT/MAVT and simple weighted sums, with some studies including more than one method. The choice of criteria spanned operational (mostly), but also environmental and economic aspects to evaluate the alternatives. Less frequently, one finds criteria related to social, managerial, and political aspects. The weighting of the criteria was performed mainly by consulting experts, followed by decision makers. Representatives of the affected population or other stakeholders have been consulted only on a few occasions. The authors of the studies consider their application of MCDA was successful, highlighting mainly the importance of being able to encompass different dimensions in the evaluation of the alternatives and the transparency of the process. In most cases, a winning alternative emerged clearly, which sometimes was a combination of multiple strategies. We also report other recommendations of these authors concerning marine and terrestrial plastic waste management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 39 ◽  
pp. 100789
Ameni Boumaiza ◽  
Antonio Sanfilippo ◽  
Nassma Mohandes

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