systematic evaluation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-42
Maitraye Das ◽  
Anne Marie Piper ◽  
Darren Gergle

Collaborative writing tools have been used widely in professional and academic organizations for many years. Yet, there has not been much work to improve screen reader access in mainstream collaborative writing tools. This severely affects the way people with vision impairments collaborate in ability-diverse teams. As a step toward addressing this issue, the present article aims at improving screen reader representation of collaborative features such as comments and track changes (i.e., suggested edits). Building on our formative interviews with 20 academics and professionals with vision impairments, we developed auditory representations that indicate comments and edits using non-speech audio (e.g., earcons, tone overlay), multiple text-to-speech voices, and contextual presentation techniques. We then performed a systematic evaluation study with 48 screen reader users that indicated that non-speech audio, changing voices, and contextual presentation can potentially improve writers’ collaboration awareness. We discuss implications of these results for the design of accessible collaborative systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 162 ◽  
pp. 107-117
Kaylee M. Keller ◽  
Sonja Krausert ◽  
Apurva Gopisetty ◽  
Dan Luedtke ◽  
Jan Koster ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 310 ◽  
pp. 122358
Xiangyu Gu ◽  
Na Pang ◽  
Yaojing Qiu ◽  
Xiao Fu ◽  
Yiqing Yao ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 655
Elisabet Roca-Millan ◽  
Enric Jané-Salas ◽  
Antonio Marí-Roig ◽  
Álvaro Jiménez-Guerra ◽  
Iván Ortiz-García ◽  

The demand for synthetic graft materials in implant dentistry is rising. This systematic review aims to evaluate the survival rate of dental implants placed simultaneously with bone regeneration procedures using the material β-tricalcium phosphate, one of the most promising synthetic graft materials. The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. There were five randomized clinical trials, one of which was a non-randomized controlled clinical trial and four of which were observational studies without a control group included. Implant survival rate and other clinical, radiographic, and histological parameters did not differ from those of implants placed simultaneously with another type of graft material, or placed in blood clots or natural alveolar ridges. Based on the available literature, β-tricalcium phosphate seems to be a promising graft material in implant dentistry. Nevertheless, more randomized clinical trials, with long follow-up periods, preoperative and postoperative CBCT, and histological analysis, are necessary to assess its long-term behavior.

Anja Kroke ◽  
Annemarie Schmidt ◽  
Anna M. Amini ◽  
Nicole Kalotai ◽  
Andreas Lehmann ◽  

Abstract Purpose The present work aimed to delineate (i) a revised protocol according to recent methodological developments in evidence generation, to (ii) describe its interpretation, the assessment of the overall certainty of evidence and to (iii) outline an Evidence to Decision framework for deriving an evidence-based guideline on quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary protein intake. Methods A methodological protocol to systematically investigate the association between dietary protein intake and several health outcomes and for deriving dietary protein intake recommendations for the primary prevention of various non-communicable diseases in the general adult population was developed. Results The developed methodological protocol relies on umbrella reviews including systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses. Systematic literature searches in three databases will be performed for each health-related outcome. The methodological quality of all selected systematic reviews will be evaluated using a modified version of AMSTAR 2, and the outcome-specific certainty of evidence for systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis will be assessed with NutriGrade. The general outline of the Evidence to Decision framework foresees that recommendations in the derived guideline will be given based on the overall certainty of evidence as well as on additional criteria such as sustainability. Conclusion The methodological protocol permits a systematic evaluation of published systematic reviews on dietary protein intake and its association with selected health-related outcomes. An Evidence to Decision framework will be the basis for the overall conclusions and the resulting recommendations for dietary protein intake.

2022 ◽  
Emily Banwell ◽  
Terry Hanley ◽  
Santiago De Ossorno Garcia ◽  
Charlotte Mindel ◽  
Thomas Kayll ◽  

BACKGROUND Young people are increasingly going online to seek out web-based support for their mental health and wellbeing. Peer support forums are popular with this age group, with young individuals valuing the fact that they are available 24/7, providing a safe and anonymous space for exploration. Currently, little systematic evaluation of the helpfulness of such groups in providing support has been conducted. OBJECTIVE This study examines the helpfulness of the support offered within web-based peer support forums for young people. It specifically investigates the self-reported user-ratings of helpfulness reported through the completion of a developing experience measure. The ratings are used to consider the further development of the measure and to reflect upon the overall helpfulness of the forums as indicated by the reported scores. METHODS The study makes use of routinely collected practice-based outcome data from online mental health forums for young people. These forums are hosted by the UK based web-based therapy and support service, A cross-sectional design has been employed to explore the outcomes that have been reported by those accessing the forums using a Peer Online Community Experience Measure (POCEM). To consider the helpfulness in general, a total of 23,443 completed POCEMs from the 2020 calendar year were used. A second dataset of 17,137 completed POCEMs from the same year was used to consider whether other indicators, such as the time of day of the post, had an impact upon the helpfulness rating. RESULTS Female users between the ages of 11 and 16 predominantly completed the POCEM. This is in keeping with the majority of those using the service. 74.6% of the scores on the POCEM indicated the individuals found the posts helpful, and there was some indication that males were more likely to report obtaining intrapersonal support, whilst females obtained interpersonal support. Further, the POCEM scores reflected the internal consistency of the measure and provided an insight into the way that young people made use of the peer support resource. For instance, posts were rated more helpful if individuals spent a longer time reading them, and the topics discussed changed throughout the day with more mental health issues being discussed later at night. CONCLUSIONS The results appear to demonstrate that overall, the young people involved in this study found web-based peer support helpful. They indicate that that peer support can provide an important strand of care within a supportive mental health ecosystem, particularly during time periods when in-person support is typically closed. However, caution is needed when interpreting the results of this study. Whilst such services are incredibly well used, they have received little research attention to date. As such, further investigation into what constitutes helpful and unhelpful peer support is needed.

Xiaotong Ding ◽  
Kathleen Vancleef

AbstractVisual diagnostic tests must have a high degree of consistency in their measurements (high reliability) to ensure accurate assessment of perceptual abilities. The current study assessed test–retest reliability and practice effects in the Leuven Perceptual Organisation Screening Test (L-POST) in 144 healthy volunteers, with time intervals between 0 and 756 days. We used Pearson's and intraclass correlation analysis, Bland–Altman analysis and multilevel modelling. Results from our analyses converged and supported an adequate reliability of the L-POST. Multilevel modelling demonstrated an absence of practice effect, suggesting that the L-POST is suitable for repeat administration. This study suggests that the L-POST has adequate reliability and is suitable for repeat administration even at short intervals. This study provides the basis for a more systematic evaluation for neuropsychological assessments, which can lead to the development of more reliable assessment batteries.

2022 ◽  
Zi ZHANG ◽  
Yugo SATO ◽  
Ji DAI ◽  
Ho-kwong Chui ◽  
Glen Daigger ◽  

Abstract Municipal services for buildings in developed (sub)tropical coastal cities contributed 18% of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in 2020. One mitigatory solution is the direct use of seawater for district cooling and toilet flushing, which has been applied in Hong Kong on various scales and achieved 30% water and energy savings. However, no systematic evaluation and strategy for this solution are available. Herein, we develop a high-resolution quantitative scheme to elaborate the co-benefits and optimal strategies for expanding this use of seawater. We find that in Hong Kong, Jeddah, and Miami, using local seawater at the city-scale would achieve life-cycle GHG mitigation (42%–56%), energy savings (45%–49%), and freshwater savings (11%–43%). High-resolution analysis reveals that population density and district marginal performance are essential to optimize the efficiency of seawater use. Our scheme confirms the utility of seawater for municipal services and is an effective tool for innovative municipal-service enhancement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haoliang Fan ◽  
Yitong He ◽  
Shuanglin Li ◽  
Qiqian Xie ◽  
Fenfen Wang ◽  

Insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms, combined desirable characteristics of both short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are considerable potential in the fields of forensic practices and population genetics. However, most commercial InDel kits designed based on non-Asians limited extensive forensic applications in East Asian (EAS) populations. Recently, a novel 6-dye direct and multiplex PCR-CE-based typing system was designed on the basis of genome-wide EAS population data, which could amplify 60 molecular genetic markers, consisting of 57 autosomal InDels (A-InDels), 2 Y-chromosomal InDels (Y-InDels), and Amelogenin in a single PCR reaction and detect by capillary electrophoresis, simultaneously. In the present study, the DNA profiles of 279 unrelated individuals from the Hainan Li group were generated by the novel typing system. In addition, we collected two A-InDel sets to evaluate the forensic performances of the novel system in the 1,000 Genomes Project (1KG) populations and Hainan Li group. For the Universal A-InDel set (UAIS, containing 44 A-InDels) the cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) ranged from 1–1.03 × 10–14 to 1–1.27 × 10–18, and the cumulative power of exclusion (CPE) varied from 0.993634 to 0.999908 in the 1KG populations. For the East Asia-based A-InDel set (EAIS, containing 57 A-InDels) the CPD spanned from 1–1.32 × 10–23 to 1–9.42 × 10–24, and the CPE ranged from 0.999965 to 0.999997. In the Hainan Li group, the average heterozygote (He) was 0.4666 (0.2366–0.5448), and the polymorphism information content (PIC) spanned from 0.2116 to 0.3750 (mean PIC: 0.3563 ± 0.0291). In total, the CPD and CPE of 57 A-InDels were 1–1.32 × 10–23 and 0.999965, respectively. Consequently, the novel 6-dye direct and multiplex PCR-CE-based typing system could be considered as the reliable and robust tool for human identification and intercontinental population differentiation, and supplied additional information for kinship analysis in the 1KG populations and Hainan Li group.

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