Life Expectancy
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260657
Girimallika Borah

To assess the gender gap in life expectancy at birth in India and its major states as well as the timing of male-female life expectancy at birth crossover. To analyze the age-specific contributions to the changing gender differences before and after the crossover at the national and sub-national levels. We have used sample-survey-based age-specific mortality data available for the periods 1970–2018 to construct abridged life tables. The contribution of different age groups to the gender gap is estimated by using Arriaga’s method of decomposition. During 1981–85 female life expectancy at birth caught up with male life expectancy at birth for India and by 2005 all major states completed the crossover. The male-female crossover in life expectancy at the national level in the early 80s is remarkable in the face of continued female disadvantage from birth till adolescence, even for some richer states. We provide evidence that gender difference in longevity in favour of females is largely a function of adult age groups and younger age groups contribute negatively to the gender gap in life expectancy at birth in most states. Juxtaposing the results from contribution in an absolute number of years and their relative contribution change before and after the crossover, it is established that although the adult and old age groups contribute the highest in the absolute number of years before and after the crossover, the contribution of the reproductive age groups and childhood years in the recent time is most relevant in relative terms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Anaïs Ladoy ◽  
Juan R. Vallarta-Robledo ◽  
David De Ridder ◽  
José Luis Sandoval ◽  
Silvia Stringhini ◽  

AbstractThough Switzerland has one of the highest life expectancies in the world, this global indicator may mask significant disparities at a local level. The present study used a spatial cluster detection approach based on individual death records to investigate the geographical footprint of life expectancy inequalities in the state of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual-level mortality data (n = 22,751) were obtained from Geneva’s official death notices (2009–2016). We measured life expectancy inequalities using the years of potential life lost or gained (YPLLG) metric, defined as the difference between an individual’s age at death and their life expectancy at birth. We assessed the spatial dependence of YPLLG across the state of Geneva using spatial autocorrelation statistics (Local Moran’s I). To ensure the robustness of the patterns discovered, we ran the analyses for ten random subsets of 10,000 individuals taken from the 22,751 deceased. We also repeated the spatial analysis for YPLLG before and after controlling for individual-level and neighborhood-level covariates. The results showed that YPLLG was not randomly distributed across the state of Geneva. The ten random subsets revealed no significant difference with the geographic footprint of YPLLG and the population characteristics within Local Moran cluster types, suggesting robustness for the observed spatial structure. The proportion of women, the proportion of Swiss, the neighborhood median income, and the neighborhood median age were all significantly lower for populations in low YPLLG clusters when compared to populations in high YPLLG clusters. After controlling for individual-level and neighborhood-level covariates, we observed a reduction of 43% and 39% in the size of low and high YPLLG clusters, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Switzerland using spatial cluster detection methods to investigate inequalities in life expectancy at a local scale and based on individual data. We identified clear geographic footprints of YPLLG, which may support further investigations and guide future public health interventions at the local level.

Chia-Chang Chuang

This study examined the mediation effect of gross domestic product (GDP) on the relationship between life expectancy and income inequality based on data from 23 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries for 2004 through 2014. To form a theoretical framework, Preston curve and Kuznets curve were employed. The study set up a mediation model with life expectancy as an outcome variable, GDP as a mediator variable, and three variables characterising income inequality as predictor variables: Gini index, income share held by highest 20%, and poverty headcount ratio at US$1.90 a day. The study found that GDP clearly mediates the effects of the predictor variables on life expectancy, although the magnitudes of the effects vary. This study takes an important initial step in exploring the mediation effect of GDP on the relationship between life expectancy and income inequality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (47) ◽  
pp. 108-110
Angela Rigo Portocarrero ◽  
Patrícia Flora Sandri ◽  
Franciele Karina Da Veiga ◽  
Larissa Ciupa ◽  
Fabiana Nabarro Ferraz ◽  

Background: In experiments with homeopathic medicines is important to test the inert vehicle from succussed preparations for the treatment control. Aim: To evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic solutions 1cH, 6cH and 30cH in mice’s experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Methodology: In a blind, randomized, controlled test, two independent experiments with 34 and 51 swiss male mice, 8 weeks old, kept in cages micro acclimated, infected with 1400 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi (via IP), were divided: IC-untreated control; G1cH-received hydro-alcoholic solution dynamized 1cH; G6cH-received hydro-alcoholic solution dynamized 6cH and G30cH-received hydro-alcoholic solution dynamized 30cH. The solutions were prepared according to Brazilian Homeophatic Pharmacopoeia1 with alcohol 70 ° GL. Final preparations (1cH, 6cH and 30cH) were manipulated with water (Sigma-SP-Brazil). The treatment was offered diluted with water (1/100mL) ad libitum 48 hours before infection, available for 16h. After infection, the animals were treated 56h/56h for 16h until the 9th day of infection. The parasitological parameters were analyzed: Curve of Parasitemia, Total Parasitemia (TP), Peak Maximum of Parasites (PMP), Pre-Patent Period (PPP), Patent Period (PP) and Survival. The experiment was approved by the UEM’s Ethical Committee. Results: G1cH showed a higher survival (p=0.044) with a life expectancy of 2.58 times larger than the control group (Figure 1.A), as well as lower TP (p=0.002) and PMP (p = 0.018). PPP and PP showed no statistical difference, although in G1cH1 it was observed an increasing trend of PPP (p=0.065). These results are related to host’s benefit. The G6cH group presented a longer survival (p=0,045), with a life expectancy 1.94 times larger than the control group (Figure 1.B). Although no difference to TP, PMP, PP and PPP has been observed, the alcohol 6cH performed protecting animals against infection. The G30cH displayed an increasing trend of PMP (p=0.066) compared to the control group. Effects of inert vehicle succussed have been reported in studies in vitro2. However, no effects had been reported in vivo studies yet2,3. The hydro-alcoholic solution 7% 13CH, tested under the same conditions and animal model, did not change the natural evolution of the infection2. Conclusion: The hydro-alcoholic solutions 1cH and 6cH altered the course of experimental infection by T. cruzi, reducing the parasitemia and/or increasing the survival time, and can not be considered as inert vehicle in the high diluted compounds preparation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 280
Ayu Sapitri

This study aims to analyze and determine the effect of population factors on economic growth in the Province of the Bangka Belitung Islands. The analysis method used is panel data regression. The type of data is quantitative data in the form of ADHK GRDP data by Regency/City, population growth rate, labor force participation rate, average length of schooling and life expectancy from 2010-2019. The data source is secondary obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics of the Bangka Belitung Islands Province. The results showed that the population growth rate had a negative and significant effect on economic growth while the labor force participation rate had a positive and insignificant effect on economic growth, the average length of schooling had a positive and significant effect on economic growth and life expectancy had a positive and significant effect on growth. the economy of the Bangka Belitung Islands Province. Simultaneously the population growth rate, labor force participation rate, average length of schooling and life expectancy have a positive and significant impact on economic growth in the Province of the Bangka Belitung Islands.Keywords: Economic Growth, Population Growth Rate, Labor Force Participation Rate, Average Length of Schooling, and Life Expectancy.JEL :  O40, J11, J21, P36

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1654
Justin C. Matus

Research comparing health care systems of countries, with a particular emphasis on health care spending and health care outcomes, has found unexplained differences which are often attributed to the countries’ cultures, yet these cultural dimensions are never completely identified or measured. This study examines if culture predicts a country’s population health, measured as life expectancy and health care spending. Using the Hofstede country-level measures (six dimensions) of culture as independent variables, two regression models to predict life expectancy and per capita health care using 2016 World Bank data were developed. The original data set included 112 countries which was reduced to a final total of 60 due to missing or incomplete data. The first regression model, predicting life expectancy, indicated an adjusted R square of 0.45. The second regression model, predicting per capita health care spending, indicated an adjusted R square of 0.63. The study suggests culture is a predictor of both life expectancy and health care spending. However, by creating a composite measure for all six culture measures, we have not found a significant association between culture and life expectancy and healthcare expenditure. The study is limited by small sample size, differences in geography, climate and political systems. Future research should examine more closely the relative influence of individualism on life expectancy and assumptions about models of socialized medicine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12873
Dmitry L. Maslov ◽  
Nadezhda V. Zemskaya ◽  
Oxana P. Trifonova ◽  
Steven Lichtenberg ◽  
Elena E. Balashova ◽  

The increase in life expectancy, leading to a rise in the proportion of older people, is accompanied by a prevalence of age-related disorders among the world population, the fight against which today is one of the leading biomedical challenges. Exploring the biological insights concerning the lifespan is one of the ways to provide a background for designing an effective treatment for the increase in healthy years of life. Untargeted direct injection mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling of 12 species of Drosophila with significant variations in natural lifespans was conducted in this research. A cross-comparison study of metabolomic profiles revealed lifespan signatures of flies. These signatures indicate that lifespan extension is associated with the upregulation of amino acids, phospholipids, and carbohydrate metabolism. Such information provides a metabolome-level view on longevity and may provide a molecular measure of organism age in age-related studies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 47-51
I. N. Voronchikhina ◽  
O. A. Shchuklina ◽  
V. V. Voronchikhin ◽  
A. D. Alenicheva ◽  
I. N. Klimenkova ◽  

Relevance. In terms of the richness of colors, shapes and sizes of inflorescences and relative unpretentiousness during cultivation, as well as the duration of flowering of a dahlia, the cultural has no equal. Basically, this flower crop is grown in the open field and used for landscaping areas. Dahlias, due to their decorative properties, are a promising crop for cutting. But the growth in the volume of industrial cultivation of cut dahlias has long been constrained by two negative factors - the low life expectancy of cut flowers, and the fact that not all varieties of cultivated dahlias are suitable for cultivation in greenhouses. Therefore, the search for varieties that meet the aforementioned properties is an especially urgent task.Material and methods. The material for the study was 10 varieties of Dahlia × cultorum Dutch selection. They belong to different groups of dahlias – spherical: Souvenir d'Eté, The Voice, Jowey Winnie; decorative – Orion, Café au Lait, Fleurel, Karma Choc and pompom dahlias: Little William, Cornel Bronze, Petra's Wedding, All tubers were planted in phytotron beds. Phenological observations of plants were carried out according to the Methodology of State Variety Testing of Ornamental Crops. During the growing season, the following indicators were determined: the onset of phenological phases of development, the dynamics of plant growth, the number and size of inflorescences, the length of the peduncle, the duration of flowering.Results. It was found that all the studied varieties of cultural dahlias have a high decorative effect and are suitable for growing for cutting in greenhouse conditions. Growing plants in a phytotron allows you to get a high-quality cut almost two months ahead of time, as well as have a longer and more abundant flowering. It was found that the Café au Lait cultivar is not entirely suitable for cut cultivation in greenhouses or requires the development of cultivation technology that is individual for this cultivar. It was found that the Fleurel variety surpasses other studied varieties in terms of decorativeness, inflorescence size, peduncle length, onset time and flowering duration. A significant disadvantage of the variety is its high growth and fragility of the peduncles. The most popular cut varieties were Fleurel, Petra's Wedding, Jowey Winnie and Little William. It was found that the studied varieties of cultural dahlias were distinguished not only by high decorativeness, but also by high durability in a vase from 5 to 7 days.

Fabrizio Ricci ◽  
Mohammed Yunus Khanji ◽  
Sabina Gallina

Abstract Patients with tricuspid atresia can reach their adulthood after Fontan operation. The major challenge is to maintain quality of life for the failing Fontan adult survivors, as well as extending their life expectancy.

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