droop control
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Author(s):  
Juan M. Rey ◽  
Iván Jiménez-Vargas ◽  
Pedro P. Vergara ◽  
Germán Osma-Pinto ◽  
Javier Solano
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Hongwei Li ◽  
Xiao Wang ◽  
Junmu Lin ◽  
Lei Wu ◽  
Tong Liu

Purpose This study aims to provide a solution of the power flow calculation for the low-voltage ditrect current power grid. The direct current (DC) power grid is becoming a reliable and economic alternative to millions of residential loads. The power flow (PF) in the DC network has some similarities with the alternative current case, but there are important differences that deserve to be further concerned. Moreover, the dispatchable distributed generators (DGs) in DC network can realize the flexible voltage control based on droop-control or virtual impedance-based methods. Thus, DC PF problems are still required to further study, such as hosting all load types and different DGs. Design/methodology/approach The DC power analysis was explored in this paper, and an improved Newton–Raphson based linear PF method has been proposed. Considering that constant impedance (CR), constant current (CI) and constant power (CP) (ZIP) loads can get close to the practical load level, ZIP load has been merged into the linear PF method. Moreover, DGs are much common and can be easily connected to the DC grid, so V nodes and the dispatchable DG units with droop control have been further taken into account in the proposed method. Findings The performance and advantages of the proposed method are investigated based on the results of the various test systems. The two existing linear models were used to compare with the proposed linear method. The numerical results demonstrate enough accuracy, strong robustness and high computational efficiency of the proposed linear method even in the heavily-loaded conditions and with 10 times the line resistances. Originality/value The conductance corresponding to each constant resistance load and the equivalent conductance for the dispatchable unit can be directly merged into the self-conductance (diagonal component) of the conductance matrix. The constant current loads and the injection powers from dispatchable DG units can be treated as the current sources in the proposed method. All of those make the PF model much clear and simple. It is capable of offering enough accuracy level, and it is suitable for applications in DC networks that require a large number of repeated PF calculations to optimize the energy flows under different scenarios.


Author(s):  
Kim Diefrei Remboski Felisberto ◽  
Paulo Thiago de Godoy ◽  
Diogo Marujo ◽  
Adriano Batista de Almeida ◽  
Rodrigo de Barros Iscuissati
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Sajid Ali Murtaza ◽  
Nazam Siddique ◽  
Javaid Aslam ◽  
Waqas Latif ◽  
Muhammad Wasif ◽  
...  

The AC power system is leading due to its established standards. The depleting thread of fossil fuels, the significant increase in cost and the alarming environmental situation raises concerns. An Islanded DC microgrid, due to its novel characteristics of being able to withstand faulty conditions, has increased the reliability, accuracy, ease of integration, and efficiency of the power system. Renewable energy sources, characteristically DC, have wide usability in a distributive network and, accordingly, less circuitry and conversion stages are required, eliminating the need of reactive power compensation and frequency sync. Constant power loads (CPLs) are the reason for instability in the DC microgrid. Various centralized stability techniques have been proposed in the literature; however, the grid system collapses if there is a fault. To compensate, an efficient distributive control architecture, i.e., droop control method is proposed in this research. The significant advantage of using the droop control technique includes easy implementation, high reliability and flexibility, a reduced circulating current, a decentralized control with local measurements, the absence of a communication link and, thus, it is economic. Moreover, it offers local control for each individual power source in the microgrid. To investigate the stability of the islanded DC microgrid with constant power loads using the droop control technique, a small signal model of the islanded DC microgrid was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulations were carried out to show the efficiency of the proposed controller and analyze the stability of the power system with constant power loads.


Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 175
Author(s):  
Jinlei Chen ◽  
Sheng Wang ◽  
Carlos E. Ugalde-Loo ◽  
Wenlong Ming ◽  
Oluwole D. Adeuyi ◽  
...  

Although the control of modular multi-level converters (MMCs) in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) networks has become a mature subject these days, the potential for adverse interactions between different converter controls remains an under-researched challenge attracting the attention from both academia and industry. Even for point-to-point HVDC links (i.e., simple HVDC systems), converter control interactions may result in the shifting of system operating voltages, increased power losses, and unintended power imbalances at converter stations. To bridge this research gap, the risk of multiple cross-over of control characteristics of MMCs is assessed in this paper through mathematical analysis, computational simulation, and experimental validation. Specifically, the following point-to-point HVDC link configurations are examined: (1) one MMC station equipped with a current versus voltage droop control and the other station equipped with a constant power control; and (2) one MMC station equipped with a power versus voltage droop control and the other station equipped with a constant current control. Design guidelines for droop coefficients are provided to prevent adverse control interactions. A 60-kW MMC test-rig is used to experimentally verify the impact of multiple crossing of control characteristics of the DC system configurations, with results verified through software simulation in MATLAB/Simulink using an open access toolbox. Results show that in operating conditions of 650 V and 50 A (DC voltage and DC current), drifts of 7.7% in the DC voltage and of 10% in the DC current occur due to adverse control interactions under the current versus voltage droop and power control scheme. Similarly, drifts of 7.7% both in the DC voltage and power occur under the power versus voltage droop and current control scheme.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Satish Kumar Ancha

The PVF or PV<sup>2</sup>F<sup> </sup>double droop control is commended for its ability to regulate both the dc voltage and frequency in a decentralized approach. However, a convincing response is not achieved due to an interaction between the droop characteristics of dc voltage and frequency. This interaction affects the dc voltage and frequency support of the AC system surrounded Multi-Terminal HVDC (AC-MTDC) grid. To overcome this effect, a Duo control strategy is proposed in this paper, which takes advantage of a Bi-polar Voltage Source Converter (B-VSC) topology in the MTDC grid. The virtue of proposed control technique is emphasized by comparing it with the existing $ PV<sup>2</sup>F double droop control along with three case studies and two test systems. The validation of interaction less Duo control strategy is carried out on five terminal CIGRE DC grid benchmark model integrated into two area power system (AC-MTDC grid-1) and New England IEEE 39 bus system (AC-MTDC grid-2). These test systems are simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC software.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Satish Kumar Ancha

The PVF or PV<sup>2</sup>F<sup> </sup>double droop control is commended for its ability to regulate both the dc voltage and frequency in a decentralized approach. However, a convincing response is not achieved due to an interaction between the droop characteristics of dc voltage and frequency. This interaction affects the dc voltage and frequency support of the AC system surrounded Multi-Terminal HVDC (AC-MTDC) grid. To overcome this effect, a Duo control strategy is proposed in this paper, which takes advantage of a Bi-polar Voltage Source Converter (B-VSC) topology in the MTDC grid. The virtue of proposed control technique is emphasized by comparing it with the existing $ PV<sup>2</sup>F double droop control along with three case studies and two test systems. The validation of interaction less Duo control strategy is carried out on five terminal CIGRE DC grid benchmark model integrated into two area power system (AC-MTDC grid-1) and New England IEEE 39 bus system (AC-MTDC grid-2). These test systems are simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC software.


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