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Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Wenning Wang ◽  
Kejun Li ◽  
Kaiqi Sun ◽  
Jianjian Wang

With the increasing penetration of renewable energy into the power system, the voltage source converter (VSC) for integrating renewable energy has become the most common device in the electric network. However, the operating stability of the VSC is strongly dependent on its operating control strategy, which is also highly related to the strength of the AC system. Choosing the control strategy of VSC for different strengths of AC systems becomes an essential issue for maintaining the symmetry between high proportion of renewable energy integration and stable operation of AC system. In order to obtain the operation zones of the control strategies of the VSC under different strengths of AC system, in this paper, the two common VSC control strategies, vector current control (VCC) and power synchronization control (PSC), are compared. Firstly, the principle of VCC and PSC are introduced. Then, based on the short circuit ratio (SCR) and the power limit calculation under steady-state conditions of the VSC, the operation zones of the vector current control and power synchronization control are proposed. Finally, a medium voltage modular multilevel converter (MMC) system was built in PSCAD/EMTDC and the proposed operation zones of the VCC and PSC were tested by changing the SCR of the modified IEEE 33 bus system and analyzed via the critical short circuit ratio (CSCR) analysis, the small-signal stability analysis, and transient stability analysis. The results indicate that, as the SCR decreases, the VSC based on VCC is gradually worked into unstable conditions, while the stability of VSC based on PSC gradually increases. The analysis results provide a criterion for the converter operation strategy change that could significantly improve the operating stability of the VSC in the power system and realize the symmetry of the stability of the converter and the change of the strength of the AC system.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 567
Adrian Gambier

advanced control system design for large wind turbines is becoming increasingly complex, and high-level optimization techniques are receiving particular attention as an instrument to fulfil this significant degree of design requirements. Multiobjective optimal (MOO) control, in particular, is today a popular methodology for achieving a control system that conciliates multiple design objectives that may typically be incompatible. Multiobjective optimization was a matter of theoretical study for a long time, particularly in the areas of game theory and operations research. Nevertheless, the discipline experienced remarkable progress and multiple advances over the last two decades. Thus, many high-complexity optimization algorithms are currently accessible to address current control problems in systems engineering. On the other hand, utilizing such methods is not straightforward and requires a long period of trying and searching for, among other aspects, start parameters, adequate objective functions, and the best optimization algorithm for the problem. Hence, the primary intention of this work is to investigate old and new MOO methods from the application perspective for the purpose of control system design, offering practical experience, some open topics, and design hints. A very challenging problem in the system engineering application of power systems is to dominate the dynamic behavior of very large wind turbines. For this reason, it is used as a numeric case study to complete the presentation of the paper.

2022 ◽  
Clément Gilbert ◽  
Florian Maumus

The extent to which horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has shaped eukaryote evolution remains an open question. Two recent studies reported four plant-like genes acquired through two HGT events by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a major agricultural pest (Lapadula et al. 2020; Xia et al. 2021). Here, we performed a systematic search for plant-to-insect HGT in B. tabaci and uncovered a total of 50 plant-like genes deriving from at least 24 independent HGT events. Most of these genes are present in three cryptic B. tabaci species, show high level of amino-acid identity to plant genes (mean = 64%), are phylogenetically nested within plant sequences, and are expressed and evolve under purifying selection. The predicted functions of these genes suggest that most of them are involved in plant-insect interactions. Thus, substantial plant-to-insect HGT may have facilitated the evolution of B. tabaci towards adaptation to a large host spectrum. Our study shows that eukaryote-to-eukaryote HGT may be relatively common in some lineages and it provides new candidate genes that may be targeted to improve current control strategies against whiteflies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 811
Muhammad Yasir Ali Khan ◽  
Haoming Liu ◽  
Salman Habib ◽  
Danish Khan ◽  
Xiaoling Yuan

In this work, a non-isolated DC–DC converter is presented that combines a voltage doubler circuit and switch inductor cell with the single ended primary inductor converter to achieve a high voltage gain at a low duty cycle and with reduced component count. The converter utilizes a single switch that makes its control very simple. The voltage stress across the semiconductor components is less than the output voltage, which makes it possible to use the diodes with reduced voltage rating and a switch with low turn-on resistance. In particular, performance principle of the proposed converter along with the steady state analysis such as voltage gain, voltage stress on semiconductor components, and design of inductors and capacitors, etc., are carried out and discussed in detail. Moreover, to regulate a constant voltage at a DC-link capacitor, back propagation algorithm-based adaptive control schemes are designed. These adaptive schemes enhance the system performance by dynamically updating the control law parameters in case of PV intermittency. Furthermore, a proportional resonant controller based on Naslin polynomial method is designed for the current control loop. The method describes a systematic procedure to calculate proportional gain, resonant gain, and all the coefficients for the resonant path. Finally, the proposed system is simulated in MATLAB and Simulink software to validate the analytical and theoretical concepts along with the efficacy of the proposed model.

2022 ◽  
Julianne Meisner ◽  
Agapitus Kato ◽  
Marshall Lemerani ◽  
Erick Mwamba Miaka ◽  
Acaga Ismail Taban ◽  

Abstract Background: In response to large strides in the control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), in the early 2000s the WHO set targets for elimination of both the gambiense (gHAT) and rhodesiense (rHAT) forms as a public health (EPHP) problem by 2020, and elimination of gHAT transmisson (EOT) by 2030. While global EPHP targets have been met, and EOT appears within reach, there is ample evidence that current control strategies will not achieve gHAT EOT in the presence of animal reservoirs, the role of which is currently uncertain. Furthermore, rHAT is not targeted for EOT due to the known importance of animal reservoirs for this form. Methods: To evaluate the utility of a One Health approach to gHAT and rHAT EOT, we built and parameterized a compartmental stochastic model, using the Institute for Disease Modeling's Compartmental Modeling Software, to six HAT epidemics: the national rHAT epidemics in Uganda and Malawi, the national gHAT epidemics in Uganda and South Sudan, and two separate gHAT epidemics in Democratic Republic of Congo distinguished by dominant vector species. In rHAT foci the reservoir animal sub-model was stratified on four species groups, while in gHAT foci domestic swine were assumed to be the only competent reservoir. The modeled time horizon was 2005-2045, with calibration performed using HAT surveillance data from 2000-2004 and Optuna. Interventions included insecticide and trypanocide treatment of domestic animal reservoirs at varying coverage levels. Results: Validation against HAT surveillance data indicates favorable performance overall, with the possible exception of DRC. EOT was not observed in any modeled scenarios for rHAT, however insecticide treatment consistently performed better than trypanocide treatment in terms of rHAT control. EOT was not observed for gHAT at 0% coverage of domestic reservoirs with trypanocides or insecticides, but was observed by 2030 in all test scenarios; again, insecticides demonstrated superior performance to trypanocides. Conclusions: EOT cannot be achieved for rHAT without control of wildlife reservoirs, however insecticide treatment of domestic animals holds promise for improved control. In the presence of domestic animal reservoirs, gHAT EOT will not be achieved under current control strategies.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Jing Guo ◽  
Tao Fan ◽  
Qi Li ◽  
Xuhui Wen

An asymmetric, cross-coupling effect, as well as digital control delays, in a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) will deteriorate its current-control performance in the high-speed range, especially for electric motors used in electric vehicles (EVs) with features such as high-power density and a low carrier/modulation frequency ratio. In this paper, an angle-compensating, complex-coefficient, proportional-integrator (ACCC-PI) controller is proposed, which aims to provide an excellent decoupling performance even with considerable digital control delay. Firstly, the current open and closed loop complex-coefficient transfer functions were established in the synchronous rotation coordinate system. The proposed method, along with existing ones, were then evaluated and theoretically compared. On this basis, the parameter-tuning method of the ACCC-PI controller was presented. Finally, simulation and experimental results proved the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the proposed method.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 175
Jinlei Chen ◽  
Sheng Wang ◽  
Carlos E. Ugalde-Loo ◽  
Wenlong Ming ◽  
Oluwole D. Adeuyi ◽  

Although the control of modular multi-level converters (MMCs) in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) networks has become a mature subject these days, the potential for adverse interactions between different converter controls remains an under-researched challenge attracting the attention from both academia and industry. Even for point-to-point HVDC links (i.e., simple HVDC systems), converter control interactions may result in the shifting of system operating voltages, increased power losses, and unintended power imbalances at converter stations. To bridge this research gap, the risk of multiple cross-over of control characteristics of MMCs is assessed in this paper through mathematical analysis, computational simulation, and experimental validation. Specifically, the following point-to-point HVDC link configurations are examined: (1) one MMC station equipped with a current versus voltage droop control and the other station equipped with a constant power control; and (2) one MMC station equipped with a power versus voltage droop control and the other station equipped with a constant current control. Design guidelines for droop coefficients are provided to prevent adverse control interactions. A 60-kW MMC test-rig is used to experimentally verify the impact of multiple crossing of control characteristics of the DC system configurations, with results verified through software simulation in MATLAB/Simulink using an open access toolbox. Results show that in operating conditions of 650 V and 50 A (DC voltage and DC current), drifts of 7.7% in the DC voltage and of 10% in the DC current occur due to adverse control interactions under the current versus voltage droop and power control scheme. Similarly, drifts of 7.7% both in the DC voltage and power occur under the power versus voltage droop and current control scheme.

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